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A feasibility randomised controlled trial examining the effects of the Anti-Doping Values in Coach Education (ADVICE) mobile application on doping knowledge and attitudes towards doping among grassroots coaches

Nicholls, Adam; Fairs, Lucas; Plata-Andrés, Mar; Bailey, ​​Richard ; Cope, ​​Edward ; Madigan, ​​ Daniel J.; Koenen, ​Katrin; Glibo, ​Iva; Theodorou, ​ ​Nikolaos C.; Laurent, ​​Jean-Francois ; Garcia, ​ ​Gaetan ; ​ Chanal​, ​Benoit

Authors

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Professor Adam Nicholls A.Nicholls@hull.ac.uk
Professor of Psychology/ Leader of the Sport Psychology and Coaching Group

Lucas Fairs

Mar Plata-Andrés

​​Richard Bailey

​​Edward Cope

​​ Daniel J. Madigan

​Katrin Koenen

​Iva Glibo

​ ​Nikolaos C. Theodorou

​​Jean-Francois Laurent

​ ​Gaetan Garcia

​Benoit ​ Chanal​



Abstract

Objectives Sports coaches are influential in whether athletes dope, but receive very little anti-doping education, particularly within entry level coaching qualifications. We tested the feasibility of an anti-doping intervention, delivered via a mobile application, which was designed to increase coaches’ knowledge of doping and to reduce favourable doping attitudes.
Methods A two-arm randomised controlled trial, with grassroots coaches who coach young amateur athletes aged between 14 and 18 years of age, was conducted. The Anti-Doping Values in Coach Education (ADVICE) mobile application included modules on fair play, substances, nutritional supplements, rules, and leadership. The primary outcome was the change in doping knowledge, 6 weeks after receiving the mobile application. The secondary outcome was changes in doping attitudes.
Results Grassroots coaches (n=200; aged between 18- and 71-years-old, with between 1- and 42-years coaching experience) from 29 different countries completed baseline assessments, and 85 completed follow-up assessments, and were included in mixed analysis of variance analyses. The intervention increased coaches’ knowledge about doping and also reduced favourable doping attitudes in the experimental arm.
Conclusion The ADVICE mobile application is a feasible method for delivering and increasing grassroots coaches’ knowledge of banned substances and the potential side effects of doping. Mobile application-based resources could facilitate a much wider dissemination of anti-doping education.

Citation

Nicholls, A., Fairs, L., Plata-Andrés, M., Bailey, ​., Cope, ​., Madigan, ​. D. J., …​ Chanal​, ​. (2020). A feasibility randomised controlled trial examining the effects of the Anti-Doping Values in Coach Education (ADVICE) mobile application on doping knowledge and attitudes towards doping among grassroots coaches. BMJ Open Sport and Exercise Medicine, 6(1), https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjsem-2020-000800

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Sep 18, 2020
Online Publication Date Oct 1, 2020
Publication Date 2020-11
Deposit Date Sep 18, 2020
Publicly Available Date Sep 30, 2020
Journal BMJ Open Sport and Exercise Medicine
Print ISSN 2055-7647
Publisher BMJ Publishing Group
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 6
Issue 1
Article Number 000800
DOI https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjsem-2020-000800
Keywords Coaching; Drugs; Intervention; Performance enhancing drugs
Public URL https://hull-repository.worktribe.com/output/3606663
Publisher URL https://bmjopensem.bmj.com/content/6/1/e000800

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Accepted article (415 Kb)
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http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0

Copyright Statement
This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited, appropriate credit is given, any changes made indicated, and the use is non-commercial. See:
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.


Published article (605 Kb)
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Copyright Statement
© Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2020. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.

This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited, appropriate credit is given, any changes made indicated, and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.



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