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The NANOGrav 15 yr Data Set: Observations and Timing of 68 Millisecond Pulsars

Agazie, Gabriella; Faisal Alam, Md Faisal; Anumarlapudi, Akash; Archibald, Anne M.; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Baker, Paul T.; Blecha, Laura; Bonidie, Victoria; Brazier, Adam; Brook, Paul R.; Burke-Spolaor, Sarah; Bécsy, Bence; Chapman, Christopher; Charisi, Maria; Chatterjee, Shami; Cohen, Tyler; Cordes, James M.; Cornish, Neil J.; Crawford, Fronefield; Cromartie, H. Thankful; Crowter, Kathryn; DeCesar, Megan E.; Demorest, Paul B.; Dolch, Timothy; Drachler, Brendan; Ferrara, Elizabeth C.; Fiore, William; Fonseca, Emmanuel; Freedman, Gabriel E.; Garver-Daniels, Nate; Gentile, Peter A.; Glaser, Joseph; Good, Deborah C.; Gültekin, Kayhan; Hazboun, Jeffrey S.; Jennings, Ross J.; Jessup, Cody; Johnson, Aaron D.; Jones, Megan L.; Kaiser, Andrew R.; Kaplan, David L.; Kelley, Luke Zoltan; Kerr, Matthew; Key, Joey S.; Kuske, Anastasia; Laal, Nima; Lam, Michael T.; Lamb, William G.; Lazio, T.Joseph W.; Lewandowska, Natalia; Lin, Ye; Liu, Tingting; Lorimer, Duncan R.; Luo, Jing; Lynch, Ryan S.; Ma, Chu...


Gabriella Agazie

Md Faisal Faisal Alam

Akash Anumarlapudi

Anne M. Archibald

Zaven Arzoumanian

Paul T. Baker

Laura Blecha

Victoria Bonidie

Adam Brazier

Paul R. Brook

Sarah Burke-Spolaor

Bence Bécsy

Christopher Chapman

Maria Charisi

Shami Chatterjee

Tyler Cohen

James M. Cordes

Neil J. Cornish

Fronefield Crawford

H. Thankful Cromartie

Kathryn Crowter

Megan E. DeCesar

Paul B. Demorest

Timothy Dolch

Brendan Drachler

Elizabeth C. Ferrara

William Fiore

Emmanuel Fonseca

Gabriel E. Freedman

Nate Garver-Daniels

Peter A. Gentile

Joseph Glaser

Deborah C. Good

Kayhan Gültekin

Jeffrey S. Hazboun

Ross J. Jennings

Cody Jessup

Aaron D. Johnson

Megan L. Jones

Andrew R. Kaiser

David L. Kaplan

Luke Zoltan Kelley

Matthew Kerr

Joey S. Key

Anastasia Kuske

Nima Laal

Michael T. Lam

William G. Lamb

T.Joseph W. Lazio

Natalia Lewandowska

Ye Lin

Tingting Liu

Duncan R. Lorimer

Jing Luo

Ryan S. Lynch

Chung Pei Ma

Dustin R. Madison

Kaleb Maraccini

Alexander McEwen

Maura A. McLaughlin

Natasha McMann

Bradley W. Meyers

Chiara M.F. Mingarelli

Andrea Mitridate

Cherry Ng

David J. Nice

Stella Koch Koch Ocker

Ken D. Olum

Elisa Panciu

Timothy T. Pennucci

Benetge B.P. Perera

Nihan S. Pol

Henri A. Radovan

Scott M. Ransom

Paul S. Ray

Joseph D. Romano

Laura Salo

Shashwat C. Sardesai

Carl Schmiedekamp

Ann Schmiedekamp

Kai Schmitz

Brent J. Shapiro-Albert

Xavier Siemens

Joseph Simon

Magdalena S. Siwek

Ingrid H. Stairs

Daniel R. Stinebring

Kevin Stovall

Abhimanyu Susobhanan

Joseph K. Swiggum

Stephen R. Taylor

Jacob E. Turner

Caner Unal

Michele Vallisneri

Sarah J. Vigeland

Haley M. Wahl

Qiaohong Wang

Caitlin A. Witt

Olivia Young

NANOGrav Collaboration


We present observations and timing analyses of 68 millisecond pulsars (MSPs) comprising the 15 yr data set of the North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves (NANOGrav). NANOGrav is a pulsar timing array (PTA) experiment that is sensitive to low-frequency gravitational waves (GWs). This is NANOGrav’s fifth public data release, including both “narrowband” and “wideband” time-of-arrival (TOA) measurements and corresponding pulsar timing models. We have added 21 MSPs and extended our timing baselines by 3 yr, now spanning nearly 16 yr for some of our sources. The data were collected using the Arecibo Observatory, the Green Bank Telescope, and the Very Large Array between frequencies of 327 MHz and 3 GHz, with most sources observed approximately monthly. A number of notable methodological and procedural changes were made compared to our previous data sets. These improve the overall quality of the TOA data set and are part of the transition to new pulsar timing and PTA analysis software packages. For the first time, our data products are accompanied by a full suite of software to reproduce data reduction, analysis, and results. Our timing models include a variety of newly detected astrometric and binary pulsar parameters, including several significant improvements to pulsar mass constraints. We find that the time series of 23 pulsars contain detectable levels of red noise, 10 of which are new measurements. In this data set, we find evidence for a stochastic GW background.


Agazie, G., Faisal Alam, M. F., Anumarlapudi, A., Archibald, A. M., Arzoumanian, Z., Baker, P. T., …NANOGrav Collaboration. (2023). The NANOGrav 15 yr Data Set: Observations and Timing of 68 Millisecond Pulsars. Astrophysical journal. Letters, 951(1), Article L9.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date May 31, 2023
Online Publication Date Jun 29, 2023
Publication Date Jul 1, 2023
Deposit Date Jul 5, 2023
Publicly Available Date Jul 6, 2023
Journal Astrophysical Journal Letters
Print ISSN 2041-8205
Electronic ISSN 2041-8213
Publisher American Astronomical Society
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 951
Issue 1
Article Number L9
Keywords Millisecond pulsars; Pulsar timing method; Time series analysis; Pulsars; Gravitational waves
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Original content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 licence. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI.

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