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Remembering faces with emotional expressions (2014)
Journal Article
Liu, C. H., Chen, W., Ward, J., & Chan, W. (2014). Remembering faces with emotional expressions. Frontiers in Psychology, 5(DEC), doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01439. ISSN 1664-1078

It is known that happy faces create more robust identity recognition memory than faces with some other expressions. However, this advantage was not verified against all basic expressions. Moreover, no research has assessed whether similar differences... Read More

Effects of exposure to facial expression variation in face learning and recognition (2014)
Journal Article
Liu, C. H., Chen, W., & Ward, J. (2015). Effects of exposure to facial expression variation in face learning and recognition. Psychological research, 79(6), 1042-1053. doi:10.1007/s00426-014-0627-8

Facial expression is a major source of image variation in face images. Linking numerous expressions to the same face can be a huge challenge for face learning and recognition. It remains largely unknown what level of exposure to this image variation... Read More

Development of holistic vs. featural processing in face recognition (2014)
Journal Article
Liu, C. H., & Nakabayashi, K. (2014). Development of holistic vs. featural processing in face recognition. Frontiers in human neuroscience, 8(OCT), doi:10.3389/fnhum.2014.00831. ISSN 1662-5161

According to a classic view developed by Carey and Diamond (1977), young children process faces in a piecemeal fashion before adult-like holistic processing starts to emerge at the age of around 10 years. This is known as the encoding switch hypothes... Read More

Developmental differences in holistic interference of facial part recognition (2013)
Journal Article
Nakabayashi, K., & Liu, C. H. (2013). Developmental differences in holistic interference of facial part recognition. PloS one, 8(10), e77504. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0077504

Research has shown that adults' recognition of a facial part can be disrupted if the part is learnt without a face context but tested in a whole face. This has been interpreted as the holistic interference effect. The present study investigated wheth... Read More

Beauty hinders attention switch in change detection : the role of facial attractiveness and distinctiveness (2012)
Journal Article
Chen, W., Liu, C. H., & Nakabayashi, K. (2012). Beauty hinders attention switch in change detection : the role of facial attractiveness and distinctiveness. PloS one, 7(2), (e32897). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0032897. ISSN 1932-6203

Background: Recent research has shown that the presence of a task-irrelevant attractive face can induce a transient diversion of attention from a perceptual task that requires covert deployment of attention to one of the two locations. However, it is... Read More

Anticipating intentional actions: the effect of eye gaze direction on the judgment of head rotation (2009)
Journal Article
Hudson, M., Liu, C. H., & Jellema, T. (2009). Anticipating intentional actions: the effect of eye gaze direction on the judgment of head rotation. Cognition, 112(3), (423-434). doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2009.06.011. ISSN 0010-0277

Using a representational momentum paradigm, this study investigated the hypothesis that judgments of how far another agent's head has rotated are influenced by the perceived gaze direction of the head. Participants observed a video-clip of a face rot... Read More

Transfer between pose and illumination training in face recognition. (2009)
Journal Article
Liu, C. H., Bhuiyan, M. A., Ward, J., & Sui, J. (2009). Transfer between pose and illumination training in face recognition. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 35(4), (939-947). doi:10.1037/a0013710. ISSN 0096-1523

The relationship between pose and illumination learning in face recognition was examined in a yes-no recognition paradigm. The authors assessed whether pose training can transfer to a new illumination or vice versa. Results show that an extensive lev... Read More

The role of active exploration of 3D face stimuli on recognition memory of facial information (2007)
Journal Article
Liu, C. H., Ward, J., & Markall, H. (2007). The role of active exploration of 3D face stimuli on recognition memory of facial information. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 33(4), (895-904). doi:10.1037/0096-1523.33.4.895. ISSN 0096-1523

Research on face recognition has mainly relied on methods in which observers are relatively passive viewers of face stimuli. This study investigated whether active exploration of three-dimensional (3D) face stimuli could facilitate recognition memory... Read More

Face recognition in pictures is affected by perspective transformation but not by the centre of projection (2006)
Journal Article
Liu, C. H., & Ward, J. (2006). Face recognition in pictures is affected by perspective transformation but not by the centre of projection. Perception, 35(12), (1637-1650). doi:10.1068/p5545. ISSN 0301-0066

Recognition of unfamiliar faces is susceptible to image differences caused by angular sizes subtended from the face to the camera. Research on perception of cubes suggests that apparent distortions of a shape due to large camera angle are correctable... Read More

Transfer between two- and three-dimensional representations of faces (2006)
Journal Article
Liu, C. H., Ward, J., & Young, A. W. (2006). Transfer between two- and three-dimensional representations of faces. Visual Cognition, 13(1), (51-64). doi:10.1080/13506280500143391. ISSN 1350-6285

Because stereoscopic depth cues are not present in an ordinary photograph, matching a two-dimensional (2-D) photograph to a three-dimensional (3-D) face requires establishing a correspondence between information derived from monocular depth cues and... Read More

VRVision: A new tool for the display of 3-D images in behavioral research (2005)
Journal Article
Ward, J., & Liu, C. H. (2005). VRVision: A new tool for the display of 3-D images in behavioral research. Behavior research methods, 37(3), 464-469. doi:10.3758/BF03192715

Researchers using three-dimensional (3-D) scenes in their studies often spend a lot of time prerendering the scenes into a set of images for later presentations. To improve efficiency, we have developed a new plug-in program for MATLAB that eliminate... Read More