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Visualising the complexity of the athlete monitoring cycle through principal component analysis (2019)
Journal Article
Weaving, D., Beggs, C., Dalton-Barron, N., Jones, B., & Abt, G. (in press). Visualising the complexity of the athlete monitoring cycle through principal component analysis. International journal of sports physiology and performance : IJSPP,

Purpose: The purpose of this invited commentary is to discuss the use of principal component analysis (PCA) as a dimension reduction and visualisation tool to assist in decision making and communication when analysing complex multivariate data sets a... Read More

Insufficient exercise intensity for clinical benefit? Monitoring and quantification of a community-based Phase III cardiac rehabilitation programme: A United Kingdom perspective (2019)
Journal Article
Khushhal, A., Nichols, S., Carroll, S., Abt, G., & Ingle, L. (in press). Insufficient exercise intensity for clinical benefit? Monitoring and quantification of a community-based Phase III cardiac rehabilitation programme: A United Kingdom perspective. PloS one, 14(6), https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0217654

Abstract: Background: In recent years, criticism of the percentage range approach for individualised exercise prescription has intensified and we were concerned that sub-optimal exercise dose (especially intensity) may be in part responsible for the... Read More

Pilot study assessing the influence of skin type on the heart rate measurements obtained by photoplethysmography with the Apple Watch (2019)
Journal Article
Sañudo, B., De Hoyo, M., Muñoz-López, A., Perry, J., & Abt, G. (2019). Pilot study assessing the influence of skin type on the heart rate measurements obtained by photoplethysmography with the Apple Watch. Journal of Medical Systems, 43, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10916-019-1325-2

Photoplethysmographic imaging (PPG) is currently used to measure heart rate (HR) and the accuracy of PPG can be influenced by pigmentation of the skin; however, the effects of skin color-related artifacts on PPG during exercise remain unclear. This s... Read More

Walking cadence required to elicit criterion moderate-intensity physical activity is moderated by fitness status (2019)
Journal Article
Abt, G., Bray, J., Myers, T., & Benson, A. C. (2019). Walking cadence required to elicit criterion moderate-intensity physical activity is moderated by fitness status. Journal of sports sciences, 37(17), 1989-1995. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2019.1612505

The aims of this study were to estimate the walking cadence required to elicit a VO2reserve (VO2R) of 40% and determine if fitness status moderates the relationship between walking cadence and %VO2R. Twenty participants (10 male, mean(s) age 32(10) y... Read More

The mechanical loading and muscle activation of four common exercises used in osteoporosis prevention for early postmenopausal women (2018)
Journal Article
Montgomery, G., Abt, G., Dobson, C., Smith, T., Evans, W., & Ditroilo, M. (2019). The mechanical loading and muscle activation of four common exercises used in osteoporosis prevention for early postmenopausal women. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, 44, 124-131. doi:10.1016/j.jelekin.2018.12.004

High impact exercise can reduce postmenopausal bone loss, however stimulus frequency (loading cycles per second) can affect osteogenesis. We aimed to examine the effect of stimulus frequency on the mechanical loading of four comm... Read More

Mixed-methods pre-match cooling improves simulated soccer performance in the heat (2018)
Journal Article
Aldous, J. W. F., Chrismas, B. C. R., Akubat, I., Stringer, C. A., Abt, G., & Taylor, L. (2019). Mixed-methods pre-match cooling improves simulated soccer performance in the heat. European journal of sport science : the official journal of the European College of Sport Science, 19(2), 156-165. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2018.1498542

This investigation examined the effects of three pre-match and half-time cooling manoeuvres on physical performance and associated physiological and perceptual responses in eight University soccer players during a non-motorised treadmill based indivi... Read More

The validity of external:internal training load ratios in rested and fatigued soccer players (2018)
Journal Article
Akubat, I., Barrett, S., Sagarra, M. L., & Abt, G. (2018). The validity of external:internal training load ratios in rested and fatigued soccer players. Sports open access journal, 6(2), 44. https://doi.org/10.3390/sports6020044

Purpose: To examine the relationship of external:internal training load ratios with fitness and assess the impact of fatigue. Method: Ten soccer players performed a lactate threshold test followed by two soccer simulations (BEAST90mod) 48 h apart. Re... Read More

Measuring Moderate-Intensity Exercise with the Apple Watch: Validation Study (2018)
Journal Article
Abt, G., Bray, J., & Benson, A. C. (in press). Measuring Moderate-Intensity Exercise with the Apple Watch: Validation Study. JMIR Cardio, 2(1), e6. https://doi.org/10.2196/cardio.8574

Background: Moderate fitness levels and habitual exercise have a protective effect for cardiovascular disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, and all-cause mortality. The Apple Watch displays exercise completed at an intensity of a brisk walk or above usin... Read More

A Novel Adaptive Spectrum Noise Cancellation Approach for Enhancing Heartbeat Rate Monitoring in a Wearable Device (2018)
Journal Article
Abt, G., Yang, D., Cheng, Y., Zhu, J., Xue, D., Abt, G. A., …Peng, Y. (2018). A Novel Adaptive Spectrum Noise Cancellation Approach for Enhancing Heartbeat Rate Monitoring in a Wearable Device. IEEE access : practical innovations, open solutions, 6, 8364-8375. https://doi.org/10.1109/access.2018.2805223

This paper presents a novel approach, Adaptive Spectrum Noise Cancellation (ASNC), for motion artifacts removal in Photoplethysmography (PPG) signals measured by an optical biosensor to obtain clean PPG waveforms for heartbeat rate calculation. One c... Read More

The dose-response relationship between training load and aerobic fitness in academy rugby union players (2018)
Journal Article
Taylor, R. J., Sanders, D., Myers, T., Abt, G., Taylor, C. A., & Akubat, I. (2018). The dose-response relationship between training load and aerobic fitness in academy rugby union players. International journal of sports physiology and performance : IJSPP, 13(2), 163-169. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2017-0121

© 2018 Human Kinetics, Inc. Purpose: To identify the dose-response relationship between measures of training load (TL) and changes in aerobic fitness in academy rugby union players. Method: Training data from 10 academy rugby union players were colle... Read More

The validity and inter-device variability of the Apple Watch™ for measuring maximal heart rate (2017)
Journal Article
Abt, G., Bray, J., & Benson, A. C. (2018). The validity and inter-device variability of the Apple Watch™ for measuring maximal heart rate. Journal of sports sciences, 36(13), 1447-1452. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2017.1397282

Maximal heart rate (HRmax) is a fundamental measure used in exercise prescription. The Apple Watch measures heart rate yet the validity and inter-device variability of the device for measuring HRmax are unknown. Fifteen participants completed a maxim... Read More

Quantifying the external and internal loads of professional rugby league training modes : consideration for concurrent field-based training prescription (2017)
Journal Article
Weaving, D., Jones, B., Till, K., Marshall, P., Earle, K., & Abt, G. (2017). Quantifying the external and internal loads of professional rugby league training modes : consideration for concurrent field-based training prescription. Journal of strength and conditioning research, 1. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000002242

The intermittent movement, collision and skill components of professional rugby league match play require players to have a wide range of physical (e.g. repeated effort ability, speed) and technical qualities (e.g. passing, kicking, tackling ability)... Read More

Multiple measures are needed to quantify training loads in professional rugby league (2017)
Journal Article
Weaving, D., Jones, B., Marshall, P., Till, K., & Abt, G. (2017). Multiple measures are needed to quantify training loads in professional rugby league. International journal of sports medicine, 38(10), 735-740. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0043-114007

To investigate the effect of training mode (conditioning and skills) on multivariate training load relationships in professional rugby league via principal component analysis. Four measures of training load (internal: heart rate exertion index, sessi... Read More

Validity and reliability of the Apple Watch for measuring heart rate during exercise (2017)
Journal Article
Khushhal, A., Nichols, S., Evans, W., Gleadall-Siddall, D., Page, R., O'Doherty, A. F., …Abt, G. (2017). Validity and reliability of the Apple Watch for measuring heart rate during exercise. SMIO / Sports Medicine International Open, 1(6), E206-E211. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0043-120195

We examined the validity and reliability of the Apple Watch heart rate sensor during and in recovery from exercise. Twenty-one males completed treadmill exercise while wearing two Apple Watches (left and right wrists) and a Polar S810i monitor (crite... Read More

Methods of monitoring training load and their relationships to changes in fitness and performance in competitive road cyclists (2017)
Journal Article
Sanders, D., Abt, G., Hesselink, M. K. C., Myers, T., & Akubat, I. (2017). Methods of monitoring training load and their relationships to changes in fitness and performance in competitive road cyclists. International journal of sports physiology and performance : IJSPP, 12(5), 668-675. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2016-0454

Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the dose-response relationships between different training load methods and aerobic fitness and performance in competitive road cyclists. Method: Training data from 15 well-trained competitive cyclists wer... Read More

Using microtechnology to evaluate the between and within match variability of professional Twenty20 cricket fast bowlers (2016)
Journal Article
Abt, G., Bray, J., & Fogarty, M. (2016). Using microtechnology to evaluate the between and within match variability of professional Twenty20 cricket fast bowlers. Professional strength and conditioning, 43(December), 19-26

This study assessed the between- and within-match variability of external training load measures during two consecutive Twenty20 cricket seasons in professional fast bowlers. Global positioning system (GPS) and accelerometer data (PlayerLoad™) were c... Read More

Tibial impacts and muscle activation during walking, jogging and running when performed overground, and on motorised and non-motorised treadmills (2016)
Journal Article
Montgomery, G., Abt, G., Dobson, C., Smith, T., & Ditroilo, M. (2016). Tibial impacts and muscle activation during walking, jogging and running when performed overground, and on motorised and non-motorised treadmills. Gait and Posture, 49, 120-126. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2016.06.037

Purpose To examine tibial acceleration and muscle activation during overground (OG), motorised treadmill (MT) and non-motorised treadmill conditions (NMT) when walking, jogging and running at matched velocities. Methods An accelerometer recorded acce... Read More

Hot and Hypoxic Environments Inhibit Simulated Soccer Performance and Exacerbate Performance Decrements When Combined (2016)
Journal Article
Aldous, J. W. F., Chrismas, B. C. R., Akubat, I., Dascombe, B., Abt, G., & Taylor, L. (2016). Hot and Hypoxic Environments Inhibit Simulated Soccer Performance and Exacerbate Performance Decrements When Combined. Frontiers in Physiology, 6(185), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2015.00421

The effects of heat and/or hypoxia have been well-documented in match-play data. However, large match-to-match variation for key physical performance measures makes environmental inferences difficult to ascertain from soccer match-play. Therefore, th... Read More