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The prevalence and influence of psychosocial factors on technical refinement amongst highly-skilled tennis players (2018)
Journal Article
Toner, J., Carson, H. J., Collins, D., & Nicholls, A. (in press). The prevalence and influence of psychosocial factors on technical refinement amongst highly-skilled tennis players. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 1-17. doi:10.1080/1612197x.2018.1511621

The present study investigated the prevalence and influence of psychosocial factors amongst a sample of highly-skilled athletes who had previously attempted to refine their technique. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with eight t... Read More

Habitual reflexivity and skilled action (2017)
Journal Article
Toner, J. (2017). Habitual reflexivity and skilled action. Body and Society, 23(4), (3-26). doi:10.1177/1357034X17736371. ISSN 1357-034X

Theorists have used the concept habitus to explain how skilled agents are capable of responding in an infinite number of ways to the infinite number of possible situations that they encounter in their field of practice. According to some perspectives... Read More

Reflective and prereflective bodily awareness in skilled action. (2016)
Journal Article
Toner, J., Montero, B. G., & Moran, A. (2016). Reflective and prereflective bodily awareness in skilled action. Psychology of consciousness theory, research, and practice, 3(4), 303-315. https://doi.org/10.1037/cns0000090

A number of influential theories of skill acquisition posit that the performing body is an absent presence during “habitualized” action. The current article counters this claim by drawing on a wide range of empirical and phenomenological evidence to... Read More

Surveillance technologies as instruments of discipline in the elite sports coaching context: a cautionary post-structural commentary (2016)
Journal Article
Jones, L., & Toner, J. Surveillance technologies as instruments of discipline in the elite sports coaching context: a cautionary post-structural commentary. doi:10.7790/sa.v12i2.439. ISSN 2203-8469

The use of surveillance technologies as tools to encourage performance enhancement has become an accepted component of elite coaching. Those from the communities of sports physiology, psychology and biomechanics who promote the application of surveil... Read More

Toward an explanation of continuous improvement in expert athletes: The role of consciousness in deliberate practice (2015)
Journal Article
Toner, J., & Moran, A. (2015). Toward an explanation of continuous improvement in expert athletes: The role of consciousness in deliberate practice. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 46(6), 666-675. doi:10.7352/IJSP.2015.46.666

In a body of research spanning three decades, Janet Starkes and her colleagues have produced a wealth of empirical evidence on the importance of deliberate practice in the development of elite performers. Within this corpus of work, a number of studi... Read More

Bodily crises in skilled performance: Considering the need for artistic habits (2015)
Journal Article
Toner, J., Jones, L., & Moran, A. (2016). Bodily crises in skilled performance: Considering the need for artistic habits. Performance enhancement & health, 4(1-2), (50-57). doi:10.1016/j.peh.2015.10.001. ISSN 2211-2669

Empirical evidence demonstrates that performing artists are confronted by a variety of ‘bodily crises’ (e.g., injury, attrition of habits induced by ageing) over the course of their careers (Wainwright, Williams, & Turner, 2005). Such crises may pres... Read More

A brief report on the development of a theoretically-grounded intervention to promote patient autonomy and self-management of physiotherapy patients: Face validity and feasibility of implementation (2015)
Journal Article
Toner, J., Guerin, S., Hall, A. M., Hernon, M., Hurley, D. A., Jackson, B., …Taylor, I. (2015). A brief report on the development of a theoretically-grounded intervention to promote patient autonomy and self-management of physiotherapy patients: Face validity and feasibility of implementation. BMC health services research, 15(1), 1-9. doi:10.1186/s12913-015-0921-1

Background Clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of low back pain suggest the inclusion of a biopsychosocial approach in which patient self-management is prioritized. While many physiotherapists recognise the importance of evidence-based pra... Read More

The perils of automaticity (2015)
Journal Article
Toner, J., Montero, B. G., & Moran, A. (2015). The perils of automaticity. Review of general psychology, 19(4), (431-442). doi:10.1037/gpr0000054. ISSN 1939-1552

Classical theories of skill acquisition propose that automatization (i.e., performance requires progressively less attention as experience is acquired) is a defining characteristic of expertise in a variety of domains (e.g., Fitts & Posner, 1967). Au... Read More

Considering the role of cognitive control in expert performance (2014)
Journal Article
Toner, J., Montero, B. G., & Moran, A. (2015). Considering the role of cognitive control in expert performance. Phenomenology and the cognitive sciences, 14(4), (1127-1144). doi:10.1007/s11097-014-9407-6. ISSN 1568-7759

© 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Dreyfus and Dreyfus’ (1986) influential phenomenological analysis of skill acquisition proposes that expert performance is guided by non-cognitive responses which are fast, effortless and apparently... Read More

Enhancing performance proficiency at the expert level: Considering the role of 'somaesthetic awareness' (2014)
Journal Article
Toner, J., & Moran, A. (2015). Enhancing performance proficiency at the expert level: Considering the role of 'somaesthetic awareness'. Psychology of sport and exercise, 16(P1), (110-117). doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2014.07.006. ISSN 1469-0292

© 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Objectives: Traditional theories of motor learning (e.g., Fitts & Posner, 1967), along with certain contemporary psychological perspectives (e.g., Weiss & Reber, 2012; Wulf, 2013), postulate that expert performers must relinq... Read More

In praise of conscious awareness: A new framework for the investigation of "continuous improvement" in expert athletes (2014)
Journal Article
Toner, J., & Moran, A. (2014). In praise of conscious awareness: A new framework for the investigation of "continuous improvement" in expert athletes. Frontiers in psychology Frontiers Research Foundation, 5(JUL), (1-5). doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00769. ISSN 1664-1078

A key postulate of traditional theories of motor skill-learning (e.g., Fitts and Posner, 1967; Shiffrin and Schneider, 1977) is that expert performance is largely automatic in nature and tends to deteriorate when the performer “reinvests” in, or atte... Read More

From ‘blame’ to ‘shame’ in a coach–athlete relationship in golf: a tale of shared critical reflection and the re-storying of narrative experience (2012)
Journal Article
Gilbourne, D., Potrac, P., Nelson, L., Toner, J., & Marshall, P. (2012). From ‘blame’ to ‘shame’ in a coach–athlete relationship in golf: a tale of shared critical reflection and the re-storying of narrative experience. Sports Coaching Review, 1(1), 67-78. doi:10.1080/21640629.2012.704193

This paper is centered on the principle author's (John) personal narrative of a coach-athlete relationship in golf, and how the original story altered through a process of shared critical thinking. On first telling, John explained to his co-authors h... Read More

The effects of conscious processing on golf putting proficiency and kinematics (2011)
Journal Article
Toner, J., & Moran, A. (2011). The effects of conscious processing on golf putting proficiency and kinematics. Journal of sports sciences, 29(7), (673-683). doi:10.1080/02640414.2011.553964. ISSN 0264-0414

Researchers have suggested that skill performance deteriorates when people try to exert conscious control over automatic actions. Unfortunately, little is known about the effects of different types of conscious processing on skilled performance by ex... Read More