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Predicting children's word-reading accuracy for common English words: The effect of word transparency and complexity (2010)
Journal Article
Spencer, K. (2010). Predicting children's word-reading accuracy for common English words: The effect of word transparency and complexity. British Journal of Psychology, 101(3), (519-543). doi:10.1348/000712609x470752. ISSN 0007-1269

The effects of printed word frequency and transparency measures on single word reading accuracy were examined in 105 six-year-old children. The results indicated that it may be necessary to re-appraise notions of orthography-to-phonology corresponden... Read More

Feedforward,-backward, and neutral transparency measures for Grade 1 and Grade 2 Greek readers (2010)
Journal Article
Spencer, K. A., Loizidou, N., & Masterson, J. (2010). Feedforward,-backward, and neutral transparency measures for Grade 1 and Grade 2 Greek readers. Behavior research methods, 42(1), (96-108). doi:10.3758/brm.42.1.96. ISSN 1554-351X

In the present study, orthographic metrics for Greek children's Grade 1 and Grade 2 reading materials were presented. Data for five transparency metrics--three of which being neither feedforward nor feedbackward--were presented and offered for use in... Read More

Feedforward, -backward and neutral transparency measures for British English (2009)
Journal Article
Spencer, K. A. (2009). Feedforward, -backward and neutral transparency measures for British English. Behavior research methods, 41(1), (220-227). doi:10.3758/BRM.41.1.220. ISSN 1554-351X

Orthographic transparency metrics for opaque or deep languages such as French and English have tended to focus on feedforward and/or feedback directions, with claims made for the influence of both on reading. In the present study, data for five trans... Read More

Reducing cultural barriers via Internet courses (2008)
Journal Article
Xing, M., & Spencer, K. A. (2008). Reducing cultural barriers via Internet courses. Innovations in education and teaching international, 45(2), (169-181). doi:10.1080/14703290801950377. ISSN 1470-3297

A web-based learning environment has been developed to support students from China who are studying in the UK and are confronted by many cultural barriers, which may impede their academic studies.The electronic environment incorporates a number of ap... Read More

Raising students' awareness of cross-cultural contrastive rhetoric in English writing via an e-learning course
Journal Article
Xing, M., Wang, J., & Spencer, K. Raising students' awareness of cross-cultural contrastive rhetoric in English writing via an e-learning course. Language Learning and Technology, 12(2), (71-93). ISSN 1094-3501

This study investigated the potential impact of e-learning on raising overseas students' cultural awareness and explored the possibility of creating an interactive learning environment for them to improve their English academic writing. The study was... Read More