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Exercise training as a mediator for enhancing coronary collateral circulation: A review of the evidence (2019)
Journal Article
Nickolay, T., Nichols, S., Ingle, L., & Hoye, A. (2019). Exercise training as a mediator for enhancing coronary collateral circulation: A review of the evidence. Current Cardiology Reviews, 15, https://doi.org/10.2174/1573403x15666190819144336

Coronary collateral vessels supply blood to areas of myocardium at risk after arterial occlusion. Flow through these channels is driven by a pressure gradient between the donor and occluded artery. Concomitant with increased collateral flow is an inc... Read More

Insufficient exercise intensity for clinical benefit? Monitoring and quantification of a community-based Phase III cardiac rehabilitation programme: A United Kingdom perspective (2019)
Journal Article
Khushhal, A., Nichols, S., Carroll, S., Abt, G., & Ingle, L. (in press). Insufficient exercise intensity for clinical benefit? Monitoring and quantification of a community-based Phase III cardiac rehabilitation programme: A United Kingdom perspective. PloS one, 14(6), https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0217654

Abstract: Background: In recent years, criticism of the percentage range approach for individualised exercise prescription has intensified and we were concerned that sub-optimal exercise dose (especially intensity) may be in part responsible for the... Read More

Influence of appendicular skeletal muscle mass on resting metabolic equivalents in patients with cardiovascular disease: Implications for exercise training and prescription (2019)
Journal Article
Nichols, S., O'Doherty, A., Carroll, S., & Ingle, L. (in press). Influence of appendicular skeletal muscle mass on resting metabolic equivalents in patients with cardiovascular disease: Implications for exercise training and prescription. European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, https://doi.org/10.1177/2047487319856432

Is cardiorespiratory fitness related to cardiometabolic health and all-cause mortality risk in patients with coronary heart disease? A CARE CR study (2018)
Journal Article
Nichols, S., Taylor, C., Page, R., Kallvikbacka-Bennett, A., Nation, F., Goodman, T., …Ingle, L. (2018). Is cardiorespiratory fitness related to cardiometabolic health and all-cause mortality risk in patients with coronary heart disease? A CARE CR study. Sports Medicine - Open, 4(1), https://doi.org/10.1186/s40798-018-0138-z

Background: Higher cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is associated with lower morbidity and mortality in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). The mechanisms for this are not fully understood. A more favourable cardiometabolic risk factor profi... Read More

CARE CR-Cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory Adaptations to Routine Exercise-based Cardiac Rehabilitation: a study protocol for a community-based controlled study with criterion methods (2018)
Journal Article
Nichols, S., Nation, F., Goodman, T., Clark, A. L., Carroll, S., & Ingle, L. (2018). CARE CR-Cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory Adaptations to Routine Exercise-based Cardiac Rehabilitation: a study protocol for a community-based controlled study with criterion methods. BMJ open, 8(1), e019216. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2017-019216

Introduction Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) reduces all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Much of this improvement has been attributed to the beneficial effects of structured exercise training. However, UK... Read More

Estimated peak functional capacity: an accurate method for assessing change in peak oxygen consumption after cardiac rehabilitation? (2017)
Journal Article
Nichols, S., Gleadall-Siddall, D. O., Antony, R., Clark, A. L., Cleland, J. G. F., Carroll, S., & Ingle, L. (2018). Estimated peak functional capacity: an accurate method for assessing change in peak oxygen consumption after cardiac rehabilitation?. Clinical physiology and functional imaging, 38(4), 681-688. https://doi.org/10.1111/cpf.12468

Summary Objective Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is the ‘gold standard’ method of determining VO2peak. When CPET is unavailable, VO2peak may be estimated from treadmill or cycle ergometer workloads and expressed as estimated metabolic equiva... Read More

Validity and reliability of the Apple Watch for measuring heart rate during exercise (2017)
Journal Article
Khushhal, A., Nichols, S., Evans, W., Gleadall-Siddall, D., Page, R., O'Doherty, A. F., …Abt, G. (2017). Validity and reliability of the Apple Watch for measuring heart rate during exercise. SMIO / Sports Medicine International Open, 1(6), E206-E211. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0043-120195

We examined the validity and reliability of the Apple Watch heart rate sensor during and in recovery from exercise. Twenty-one males completed treadmill exercise while wearing two Apple Watches (left and right wrists) and a Polar S810i monitor (crite... Read More

High-intensity interval training versus moderate-intensity steady-state training in UK cardiac rehabilitation programmes (HIIT or MISS UK): study protocol for a multicentre randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation (2016)
Journal Article
McGregor, G., Nichols, S., Hamborg, T., Bryning, L., Tudor-Edwards, R., Markland, D., …Backx, K. (2016). High-intensity interval training versus moderate-intensity steady-state training in UK cardiac rehabilitation programmes (HIIT or MISS UK): study protocol for a multicentre randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation. BMJ open, 6(11), e012843. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2016-012843

Introduction: Current international guidelines for cardiac rehabilitation (CR) advocate moderate-intensity exercise training (MISS, moderate-intensity steady state). This recommendation predates significant advances in medical therapy for coronary he... Read More

A clinician's guide to cardiopulmonary exercise testing 2: test interpretation (2015)
Journal Article
Nichols, S., Taylor, C., & Ingle, L. (2015). A clinician's guide to cardiopulmonary exercise testing 2: test interpretation. British journal of hospital medicine, 76(5), 281-289. https://doi.org/10.12968/hmed.2015.76.5.281

Data obtained from cardiopulmonary exercise testing offer additional interpretive power over conventional exercise tolerance testing. When used correctly, these data allow improved clinical decision making in patients with cardiometabolic and respira... Read More

A clinician's guide to cardiopulmonary exercise testing 1: An introduction (2015)
Journal Article
Nichols, S., Taylor, C., & Ingle, L. (2015). A clinician's guide to cardiopulmonary exercise testing 1: An introduction. British journal of hospital medicine, 76(4), 192-195. https://doi.org/10.12968/hmed.2015.76.4.192

Compared to standard exercise tolerance testing, cardiopulmonary exercise testing is a reliable and powerful tool that can be used for risk stratification, exercise prescription and clinical diagnosis.

Variability of automated carotid intima-media thickness measurements by novice operators (2014)
Journal Article
Nichols, S., Milner, M., Meijer, R., Carroll, S., & Ingle, L. (2016). Variability of automated carotid intima-media thickness measurements by novice operators. Clinical physiology and functional imaging, 36(1), 25-32. https://doi.org/10.1111/cpf.12189

Carotid intima-media thickness (C-IMT) measurements provide a non-invasive assessment of sub-clinical atherosclerosis. The aim of the study was to assess the inter- and intra-observer variability of automated C-IMT measurements undertaken by two novi... Read More