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Foraging guppies can compensate for low-light conditions, but not via a sensory switch (2019)
Journal Article
Kimbell, H., Chapman, B., Dobbinson, K., & Morrell, L. (2019). Foraging guppies can compensate for low-light conditions, but not via a sensory switch. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 73, doi:10.1007/s00265-019-2640-9

Animals can adapt to changes in their environment through behavioural or developmental plasticity, but studies of these responses tend to focus on either short-term exposure of adults to the changed conditions, or long-term exposure of juveniles. Juv... Read More

Group size and individual ‘personality’ influence emergence times in hermit crabs (2018)
Journal Article
Broadhurst, H. E., & Morrell, L. J. (2019). Group size and individual ‘personality’ influence emergence times in hermit crabs. Bioscience Horizons, 11, doi:10.1093/biohorizons/hzy011

Many animals benefit from aggregating due to the anti-predator effects associated with living in groups. Hermit crabs are known to form groups, or ‘clusters’, which may occur at sites of high shell availability. Clustering may also have anti-predator... Read More

Local interactions and global properties of wild, free-ranging stickleback shoals (2017)
Journal Article
Ward, A. J. W., Schaerf, T. M., Herbert-Read, J. E., Morrell, L., Sumpter, D. J. T., & Webster, M. M. (2017). Local interactions and global properties of wild, free-ranging stickleback shoals. Royal Society Open Science, 4(7), 170043. doi:10.1098/rsos.170043

Collective motion describes the global properties of moving groups of animals and the self-organized, coordinated patterns of individual behaviour that produce them. We examined the group-level patterns and local interactions between individuals in w... Read More

Student perceptions of their autonomy at University (2017)
Journal Article
Henri, D. C., Morrell, L. J., & Scott, G. W. (2018). Student perceptions of their autonomy at University. Higher Education, 75(3), (507-516). doi:10.1007/s10734-017-0152-y. ISSN 0018-1560

© 2017, The Author(s). Learner autonomy is a primary learning outcome of Higher Education in many countries. However, empirical evaluation of how student autonomy progresses during undergraduate degrees is limited. We surveyed a total of 636 students... Read More

Disturbed flow in an aquatic environment may create a sensory refuge for aggregated prey (2017)
Journal Article
Johannesen, A., Dunn, A. M., & Morrell, L. J. (2017). Disturbed flow in an aquatic environment may create a sensory refuge for aggregated prey. PeerJ, 5, doi:10.7717/peerj.3121

Predators use olfactory cues moved within water and air to locate prey. Because prey aggregations may produce more cue and be easier to detect, predation could limit aggregation size. However, disturbance in the flow may diminish the reliability of o... Read More

Colour preferences of UK garden birds at supplementary seed feeders (2017)
Journal Article
Rothery, L., Scott, G. W., & Morrell, L. J. (2017). Colour preferences of UK garden birds at supplementary seed feeders. PloS one, 12(2), doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0172422. ISSN 1932-6203

Supplementary feeding of garden birds generally has benefits for both bird populations and human wellbeing. Birds have excellent colour vision, and show preferences for food items of particular colours, but research into colour preferences associated... Read More

Conflict between background matching and social signalling in a colour-changing freshwater fish (2016)
Journal Article
Morrell, L. J., Kelley, J. L., & Rodgers, G. M. (2016). Conflict between background matching and social signalling in a colour-changing freshwater fish. Royal Society Open Science, 3(6), (160040). doi:10.1098/rsos.160040. ISSN 2054-5703

The ability to change coloration allows animals to modify their patterning to suit a specific function. Many freshwater fishes, for example, can appear cryptic by altering the dispersion of melanin pigment in the skin to match the visual background.... Read More

The effect of temporally variable environmental stimuli and group size on emergence behavior (2016)
Journal Article
Hansen, M. J., Morrell, L. J., Ward, A. J., Ward, A. J. W., Morrell, L., Hansen, M., & Ward, A. (2015). The effect of temporally variable environmental stimuli and group size on emergence behavior. Behavioral ecology, 27(3), (939-945). doi:10.1093/beheco/arv237. ISSN 1045-2249

How animals trade-off food availability and predation threats is a strong determinant of animal activity and behavior; however, the majority of work on this topic has been on individual animals, despite the modulating effect the presence of conspecif... Read More

Turbidity weakens selection for assortment in body size in groups (2015)
Journal Article
Kimbell, H. S., & Morrell, L. J. (2016). Turbidity weakens selection for assortment in body size in groups. Behavioral ecology, 27(2), 545-552. doi:10.1093/beheco/arv183

Prey animals commonly associate with similar-looking individuals to reduce predation risk, via a reduction in predator targeting accuracy (the confusion effect) and preferential targeting of distinct individuals (the oddity effect). These effects are... Read More

Handedness in fiddler crab fights (2015)
Journal Article
Backwell, P. R. Y., Perez, D. M., Heatwole, S. J., Morrell, L. J., Morrell, L., Backwell, P., …Perez, D. (2015). Handedness in fiddler crab fights. Animal behaviour, 110(December), (99-104). doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2015.09.012. ISSN 0003-3472

Asymmetric weapons are common in bilateral animals and, in some species, they can occur on either the left- or the right-hand side of the body (lateralization). Fiddler crabs (Uca spp, Decapoda: Ocypodidae) have an enlarged claw that is used in male–... Read More

'Selfish herds' of guppies follow complex movement rules, but not when information is limited (2015)
Journal Article
Kimbell, H. S., & Morrell, L. J. (2015). 'Selfish herds' of guppies follow complex movement rules, but not when information is limited. Proceedings. the Royal Society. Biological sciences /, 282(1816), (1-7). doi:10.1098/rspb.2015.1558. ISSN 0962-8452

Under the threat of predation, animals can decrease their level of risk by moving towards other individuals to form compact groups. A significant body of theoretical work has proposed multiple movement rules, varying in complexity, which might underl... Read More

Turbidity influences individual and group level responses to predation in guppies, Poecilia reticulata (2015)
Journal Article
Kimbell, H. S., & Morrell, L. (2015). Turbidity influences individual and group level responses to predation in guppies, Poecilia reticulata. Animal behaviour, 103(May), (179-185). doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2015.02.027. ISSN 0003-3472

© 2015 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Increasing turbidity (either sedimentary or organic) from anthropogenic sources has significant negative impacts on aquatic fauna, both directly and indirectly by disrupting behaviour. In part... Read More

Consequences of variation in predator attack for the evolution of the selfish herd (2014)
Journal Article
Morrell, L. J., Greenwood, L., & Ruxton, G. D. (2015). Consequences of variation in predator attack for the evolution of the selfish herd. Evolutionary Ecology, 29(1), 107-121. doi:10.1007/s10682-014-9743-6

There is a strong body of evidence that patterns of collective behaviour in grouping animals are governed by interactions between small numbers of individuals within the group. These findings contrast with study of the ‘selfish herd’, where increasin... Read More

Prey body size mediates the predation risk associated with being "odd" (2014)
Journal Article
Morrell, L. J., Downing, B., & Rodgers, G. M. (2015). Prey body size mediates the predation risk associated with being "odd". Behavioral ecology, 26(1), 242-246. doi:10.1093/beheco/aru185

Despite selection pressures on prey animals to maintain phenotypically homogeneous groups, variation in phenotype within animal groups is commonly observed. Although many prey animals preferentially associate with size-matched individuals, a lack of... Read More

Use of feed-forward mechanisms in a novel research-led module (2014)
Journal Article
Morrell, L. J. (2014). Use of feed-forward mechanisms in a novel research-led module. Bioscience education e-journal BEE-j, 22(1), (70-81). doi:10.11120/beej.2013.00020. ISSN 1479-7860

I describe a novel research-led module that combines reduced academic marking loads with increased feedback to students, and allows students to reflect on and improve attainment prior to summative assessment. The module is based around eight seminar-... Read More

Why is eusociality an almost exclusively terrestrial phenomenon? (2014)
Journal Article
Humphries, S., Morrell, L. J., Ruxton, G. D., & Wilkinson, D. M. (2014). Why is eusociality an almost exclusively terrestrial phenomenon?. The journal of animal ecology, 83(6), (1248-1255). doi:10.1111/1365-2656.12251. ISSN 0021-8790

1.Eusociality has evolved multiple times across diverse terrestrial taxa, and eusocial species fundamentally shape many terrestrial ecosystems. However, eusocial species are far less common and have much less ecological impact, in aquatic than terres... Read More

Prey aggregation is an effective olfactory predator avoidance strategy (2014)
Journal Article
Morrell, L. J., Dunn, A. M., & Johannesen, A. (in press). Prey aggregation is an effective olfactory predator avoidance strategy. PeerJ, 2014(1), (1-16). doi:10.7717/peerj.408. ISSN 2167-8359

Predator–prey interactions have a major effect on species abundance and diversity, and aggregation is a well-known anti-predator behaviour. For immobile prey, the effectiveness of aggregation depends on two conditions: (a) the inability of the predat... Read More

The role of individuality in collective group movement (2013)
Journal Article
Ward, A., Herbert-Read, J., Krause, J., Krause, S., Schaerf, T., & Morrell, L. (2013). The role of individuality in collective group movement. Proceedings. the Royal Society. Biological sciences /, 280(1752), (0 - 0). ISSN 0962-8452

How different levels of biological organization interact to shape each other’s function is a central question in biology. One particularly important topic in this context is how individuals’ variation in behaviour shapes group-level chara... Read More