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Exercise tolerance during VO2 max testing is a multifactorial psychobiological phenomenon (2017)
Journal Article
McNaughton, L. R., Midgley, A. W., Earle, K., McNaugton, L. R., Siegler, J. C., Clough, P., & Earle, F. (2017). Exercise tolerance during VO2 max testing is a multifactorial psychobiological phenomenon. Research in Sports Medicine, 25(4), (480-494). doi:10.1080/15438627.2017.1365294. ISSN 1543-8627

© 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. Fifty-nine men completed a VO 2max test and a questionnaire to establish reasons for test termination, perceived exercise reserve (difference between actual test duration and the duratio... Read More

Predicting cooperation in competitive conditions : the role of sportspersonship, moral competence, and emotional intelligence (2017)
Journal Article
Perry, J., & Clough, P. J. (2017). Predicting cooperation in competitive conditions : the role of sportspersonship, moral competence, and emotional intelligence. Psychology of sport and exercise, 31, 88-92. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2017.04.008

Objectives The purpose of the present study was to examine the predictive capabilities of sportspersonship, moral competence, and emotional intelligence on cooperation in varying competitive conditions. Design An experimental study was conducted, exa... Read More

Separating the effects of task load and task motivation on the effort–fatigue relationship (2015)
Journal Article
Earle, F., Hockey, B., Earle, K., & Clough, P. (2015). Separating the effects of task load and task motivation on the effort–fatigue relationship. Motivation and emotion, 39(4), 467-476. doi:10.1007/s11031-015-9481-2

A study is reported on the effects of task load and task motivation on the relationship between effort and fatigue in a demanding life-support simulation, aimed to test the hypothesis that effort, rather than demands, was the direct cause of fatigue... Read More

Development and validation of the compliant and principled sportspersonship scale (2014)
Journal Article
Perry, J. L., Clough, P. J., Crust, L., Nabb, S. L., & Nicholls, A. R. (2015). Development and validation of the compliant and principled sportspersonship scale. Research quarterly for exercise and sport, 86(1), 71-80. doi:10.1080/02701367.2014.980938

A new measure of sportspersonship that differentiates between compliance and principled decisions was developed and validated in three studies. In Study 1, a 71-item questionnaire was developed and administered to 357 sports participants, before prin... Read More

Relationships between mental toughness and psychological wellbeing in undergraduate students (2014)
Journal Article
Clough, P., Perry, J., Crust, L., Marchant, D., Stamp, E., & Swann, C. (2015). Relationships between mental toughness and psychological wellbeing in undergraduate students. Personality and individual differences, 75, (170-174). doi:10.1016/j.paid.2014.11.038. ISSN 0191-8869

This study examined relationships between mental toughness (MT) and psychological wellbeing (PWB) in undergraduate students. Following previous research that identified significant and positive relations between MT and academic performance, it was hy... Read More

Factorial validity of the Mental Toughness Questionnaire-48 (2012)
Journal Article
Clough, P. J., Perry, J. L., Nicholls, A. R., Earle, K., Nicholls, A., Perry, J., & Crust, L. (2013). Factorial validity of the Mental Toughness Questionnaire-48. Personality and individual differences, 54(5), (587-592). doi:10.1016/j.paid.2012.11.020. ISSN 0191-8869

The purpose of this study was to assess the factorial validity of the Mental Toughness Questionnaire-48 (Clough, Earle, & Sewell, 2002). In total, 8207 participants (male n= 4019, female n= 3922, unspecified = 266) aged between 16 and 68. years (M=... Read More

Identifying the cognitive basis of mental toughness: Evidence from the directed forgetting paradigm (2012)
Journal Article
Dewhurst, S. A., Anderson, R. J., Cotter, G., Crust, L., & Clough, P. J. (2012). Identifying the cognitive basis of mental toughness: Evidence from the directed forgetting paradigm. Personality and individual differences, 53(5), (587-590). doi:10.1016/j.paid.2012.04.036

The concept of mental toughness has been found to be related to outcome performance measures in sport and other competitive situations. Despite this, little attention has been devoted to understanding the cognitive mechanisms that underlie mental tou... Read More

Are adolescents with high mental toughness levels more resilient against stress? (2012)
Journal Article
Gerber, M., Kalak, N., Lemola, S., Clough, P. J., Perry, J. L., Puehse, U., …Brand, S. (2013). Are adolescents with high mental toughness levels more resilient against stress?. Stress and Health, 29(2), (164-171). doi:10.1002/smi.2447. ISSN 1532-3005

Mental toughness has been explored predominantly within sport contexts. Nevertheless, it is difficult to conceive mental toughness as only applicable to athletes. This study examines whether mentally tough participants exhibit resilience against stre... Read More

Development and validation of a virtual reality simulator: Human factors input to interventional radiology training (2011)
Journal Article
Johnson, S. J., Guediri, S. M., Kilkenny, C., & Clough, P. J. (2011). Development and validation of a virtual reality simulator: Human factors input to interventional radiology training. Human Factors, 53(6), (612-625). doi:10.1177/0018720811425042. ISSN 0018-7208

Objective: This study developed and validated a virtual reality (VR) simulator for use by interventional radiologists.Background: Research in the area of skill acquisition reports practice as essential to become a task expert. Studies on simulation s... Read More

Mental toughness: managerial and age differences (2009)
Journal Article
Polman, R. C. J., Levy, A. R., Jackson, J. G., Polman, R. C. J., Marchant, D. C., Clough, P. J., & Nicholls, A. R. (2009). Mental toughness: managerial and age differences. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 24(5), 428-437. doi:10.1108/02683940910959753

Purpose - The purpose of this study is to investigate whether employees at various levels of managerial positions (e.g. senior, middle, and junior) exhibit different levels of mental toughness. In addition, the study seeks to explore possible effects... Read More

Stress appraisals, emotions, and coping among international adolescent golfers (2009)
Journal Article
Nicholls, A. R., Hemmings, B., & Clough, P. J. (2010). Stress appraisals, emotions, and coping among international adolescent golfers. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 20(2), (346-355). doi:10.1111/j.1600-0838.2009.00894.x. ISSN 0905-7188

The aims of this study were to (a) explore the emotions generated during or as a consequence of stress appraisals, after coping, and after the event outcome, (b) explore whether multiple emotions were generated from the initial stress appraisal throu... Read More

Adherence to sport injury rehabilitation programs: An integrated psycho-social approach (2008)
Journal Article
Clough, P. J., Levy, A. R., & Polman, R. C. J. (2008). Adherence to sport injury rehabilitation programs: An integrated psycho-social approach. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 18(6), (798-809). doi:10.1111/j.1600-0838.2007.00704.x. ISSN 0905-7188

The aim of the present study was to examine an adapted integrated psycho-social model to predict sport injury rehabilitation adherence. A longitudinal prospective design was used whereby 70 patients attending private physiotherapy clinics completed a... Read More