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The relationship between mental toughness and cognitive control: evidence from the item-method directed forgetting task (2019)
Journal Article
Dewhurst, S. A., Anderson, R. J., Howe, D., & Clough, P. J. (2019). The relationship between mental toughness and cognitive control: evidence from the item-method directed forgetting task. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 33(5), 943-951. https://doi.org/10.1002/acp.3570

Previous research by the authors (Dewhurst, Anderson. Cotter, Crust, & Clough, 2012) found that mental toughness, as measured by the Mental Toughness Questionnaire 48 (MTQ48; Clough, Earle, & Sewell, 2002), was significantly associated with performan... Read More about The relationship between mental toughness and cognitive control: evidence from the item-method directed forgetting task.

Exercise tolerance during VO2 max testing is a multifactorial psychobiological phenomenon (2017)
Journal Article
McNaughton, L. R., Midgley, A. W., Earle, K., McNaugton, L. R., Siegler, J. C., Clough, P., & Earle, F. (2017). Exercise tolerance during VO2 max testing is a multifactorial psychobiological phenomenon. Research in Sports Medicine, 25(4), 480-494. doi:10.1080/15438627.2017.1365294

© 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. Fifty-nine men completed a VO 2max test and a questionnaire to establish reasons for test termination, perceived exercise reserve (difference between actual test duration and the duratio... Read More about Exercise tolerance during VO2 max testing is a multifactorial psychobiological phenomenon.

Predicting cooperation in competitive conditions : the role of sportspersonship, moral competence, and emotional intelligence (2017)
Journal Article
Perry, J., & Clough, P. J. (2017). Predicting cooperation in competitive conditions : the role of sportspersonship, moral competence, and emotional intelligence. Psychology of sport and exercise, 31, 88-92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2017.04.008

Objectives The purpose of the present study was to examine the predictive capabilities of sportspersonship, moral competence, and emotional intelligence on cooperation in varying competitive conditions. Design An experimental study was conducted, exa... Read More about Predicting cooperation in competitive conditions : the role of sportspersonship, moral competence, and emotional intelligence.

Effect of a non-dieting lifestyle randomised control trial on psychological well-being and weight management in morbidly obese pre-menopausal women (2015)
Journal Article
Borkoles, E., Carroll, S., Clough, P., & Polman, R. C. (2016). Effect of a non-dieting lifestyle randomised control trial on psychological well-being and weight management in morbidly obese pre-menopausal women. Maturitas, 83, 51-58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.maturitas.2015.09.010

© 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. This is an open access article under the CCBY-NC-ND license. Objective This study examined the effects of a non-dieting lifestyle intervention approach for morbidly obese women designed in the fr... Read More about Effect of a non-dieting lifestyle randomised control trial on psychological well-being and weight management in morbidly obese pre-menopausal women.

Separating the effects of task load and task motivation on the effort–fatigue relationship (2015)
Journal Article
Earle, F., Hockey, B., Earle, K., & Clough, P. (2015). Separating the effects of task load and task motivation on the effort–fatigue relationship. Motivation and emotion, 39(4), 467-476. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11031-015-9481-2

A study is reported on the effects of task load and task motivation on the relationship between effort and fatigue in a demanding life-support simulation, aimed to test the hypothesis that effort, rather than demands, was the direct cause of fatigue... Read More about Separating the effects of task load and task motivation on the effort–fatigue relationship.

Assessing model fit: Caveats and recommendations for confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory structural equation modeling (2015)
Journal Article
Perry, J. L., Nicholls, A. R., Clough, P. J., & Crust, L. (2015). Assessing model fit: Caveats and recommendations for confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory structural equation modeling. Measurement in physical education and exercise science, 19(1), 12-21. https://doi.org/10.1080/1091367x.2014.952370

Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) is commonly used to assess measurement models in sport and exercise psychology. Frequently used as a yardstick for their adequacy, are specific cutoff values proposed by Hu and Bentler (1999). The purpose of this st... Read More about Assessing model fit: Caveats and recommendations for confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory structural equation modeling.

Development and validation of the compliant and principled sportspersonship scale (2014)
Journal Article
Perry, J. L., Clough, P. J., Crust, L., Nabb, S. L., & Nicholls, A. R. (2015). Development and validation of the compliant and principled sportspersonship scale. Research quarterly for exercise and sport, 86(1), 71-80 . https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2014.980938

A new measure of sportspersonship that differentiates between compliance and principled decisions was developed and validated in three studies. In Study 1, a 71-item questionnaire was developed and administered to 357 sports participants, before prin... Read More about Development and validation of the compliant and principled sportspersonship scale.

Relationships between mental toughness and psychological wellbeing in undergraduate students (2014)
Journal Article
Stamp, E., Crust, L., Swann, C., Perry, J., Clough, P., & Marchant, D. (2015). Relationships between mental toughness and psychological wellbeing in undergraduate students. Personality and individual differences, 75, 170-174. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2014.11.038

This study examined relationships between mental toughness (MT) and psychological wellbeing (PWB) in undergraduate students. Following previous research that identified significant and positive relations between MT and academic performance, it was hy... Read More about Relationships between mental toughness and psychological wellbeing in undergraduate students.

Apolipoprotein E ε4 allele modulates the immediate impact of acute exercise on prefrontal function (2014)
Journal Article
De Marco, M., Clough, P. J., Dyer, C. E., Vince, R. V., Waby, J. S., Midgley, A. W., & Venneri, A. (2015). Apolipoprotein E ε4 allele modulates the immediate impact of acute exercise on prefrontal function. Behavior Genetics, 45(1), 106-116. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10519-014-9675-5

The difference between Apolipoprotein E ε4 carriers and non-carriers in response to single exercise sessions was tested. Stroop and Posner tasks were administered to young untrained women immediately after walking sessions or moderately heavy exercis... Read More about Apolipoprotein E ε4 allele modulates the immediate impact of acute exercise on prefrontal function.

Mental toughness in education: exploring relationships with attainment, attendance, behaviour and peer relationships (2014)
Journal Article
St Clair-Thompson, H., Bugler, M., Robinson, J., Clough, P., McGeown, S. P., & Perry, J. (2015). Mental toughness in education: exploring relationships with attainment, attendance, behaviour and peer relationships. Educational psychology, 35(7), 886-907 . https://doi.org/10.1080/01443410.2014.895294

Mental toughness has frequently been associated with successful performance in sport; however, recent research suggests that it may also be related to academic performance in Higher Education. In a series of three exploratory studies, we examined the... Read More about Mental toughness in education: exploring relationships with attainment, attendance, behaviour and peer relationships.

Factorial validity of the Mental Toughness Questionnaire-48 (2012)
Journal Article
Perry, J. L., Clough, P. J., Crust, L., Earle, K., & Nicholls, A. R. (2013). Factorial validity of the Mental Toughness Questionnaire-48. Personality and individual differences, 54(5), (587-592). doi:10.1016/j.paid.2012.11.020. ISSN 0191-8869

The purpose of this study was to assess the factorial validity of the Mental Toughness Questionnaire-48 (Clough, Earle, & Sewell, 2002). In total, 8207 participants (male n= 4019, female n= 3922, unspecified = 266) aged between 16 and 68. years (M=... Read More about Factorial validity of the Mental Toughness Questionnaire-48.

Are adolescents with high mental toughness levels more resilient against stress? (2012)
Journal Article
Gerber, M., Kalak, N., Lemola, S., Clough, P. J., Perry, J. L., Puehse, U., …Brand, S. (2013). Are adolescents with high mental toughness levels more resilient against stress?. Stress and Health, 29(2), 164-171. doi:10.1002/smi.2447

Mental toughness has been explored predominantly within sport contexts. Nevertheless, it is difficult to conceive mental toughness as only applicable to athletes. This study examines whether mentally tough participants exhibit resilience against stre... Read More about Are adolescents with high mental toughness levels more resilient against stress?.

Identifying the cognitive basis of mental toughness: Evidence from the directed forgetting paradigm (2012)
Journal Article
Dewhurst, S. A., Anderson, R. J., Cotter, G., Crust, L., & Clough, P. J. (2012). Identifying the cognitive basis of mental toughness: Evidence from the directed forgetting paradigm. Personality and individual differences, 53(5), 587-590. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2012.04.036

The concept of mental toughness has been found to be related to outcome performance measures in sport and other competitive situations. Despite this, little attention has been devoted to understanding the cognitive mechanisms that underlie mental tou... Read More about Identifying the cognitive basis of mental toughness: Evidence from the directed forgetting paradigm.

Development and validation of a virtual reality simulator: Human factors input to interventional radiology training (2011)
Journal Article
Johnson, S. J., Guediri, S. M., Kilkenny, C., & Clough, P. J. (2011). Development and validation of a virtual reality simulator: Human factors input to interventional radiology training. Human Factors, 53(6), (612-625). doi:10.1177/0018720811425042. ISSN 0018-7208

Objective: This study developed and validated a virtual reality (VR) simulator for use by interventional radiologists.Background: Research in the area of skill acquisition reports practice as essential to become a task expert. Studies on simulation s... Read More about Development and validation of a virtual reality simulator: Human factors input to interventional radiology training.

Mental toughness: managerial and age differences (2009)
Journal Article
Marchant, D. C., Polman, R. C. J., Clough, P. J., Jackson, J. G., Levy, A. R., & Nicholls, A. R. (2009). Mental toughness: managerial and age differences. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 24(5), 428-437. doi:10.1108/02683940910959753

Purpose - The purpose of this study is to investigate whether employees at various levels of managerial positions (e.g. senior, middle, and junior) exhibit different levels of mental toughness. In addition, the study seeks to explore possible effects... Read More about Mental toughness: managerial and age differences.

Stress appraisals, emotions, and coping among international adolescent golfers (2009)
Journal Article
Nicholls, A. R., Hemmings, B., & Clough, P. J. (2010). Stress appraisals, emotions, and coping among international adolescent golfers. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 20(2), 346-355. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0838.2009.00894.x

The aims of this study were to (a) explore the emotions generated during or as a consequence of stress appraisals, after coping, and after the event outcome, (b) explore whether multiple emotions were generated from the initial stress appraisal throu... Read More about Stress appraisals, emotions, and coping among international adolescent golfers.

Adherence to sport injury rehabilitation programs: An integrated psycho-social approach (2008)
Journal Article
Clough, P. J., Levy, A. R., & Polman, R. C. J. (2008). Adherence to sport injury rehabilitation programs: An integrated psycho-social approach. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 18(6), 798-809. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2007.00704.x

The aim of the present study was to examine an adapted integrated psycho-social model to predict sport injury rehabilitation adherence. A longitudinal prospective design was used whereby 70 patients attending private physiotherapy clinics completed a... Read More about Adherence to sport injury rehabilitation programs: An integrated psycho-social approach.


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