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Multi-Beat Averaging Reveals U Waves Are Ubiquitous and Standing Tall at Elevated Heart Rates Following Exercise (2020)
Journal Article
Al-Karadi, M. S., & Langley, P. (2020). Multi-Beat Averaging Reveals U Waves Are Ubiquitous and Standing Tall at Elevated Heart Rates Following Exercise. Sensors, 20(14), https://doi.org/10.3390/s20144029

The reporting of U wave abnormalities is clinically important, but the measurement of this small electrocardiographic (ECG) feature is extremely difficult, especially in challenging recording conditions, such as stress exercise, due to contaminating... Read More about Multi-Beat Averaging Reveals U Waves Are Ubiquitous and Standing Tall at Elevated Heart Rates Following Exercise.

The effect of beat interval on ventricular repolarisation in atrial fibrillation (2019)
Conference Proceeding
Al-Karadi, M. S., Wilkinson, A. J., & Langley, P. (2019). The effect of beat interval on ventricular repolarisation in atrial fibrillation. doi:10.22489/CinC.2018.294

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is characterised by rapid beat interval changes. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of such changes on ECG ventricular repolarisation characteristics. In 10 AF recordings beat averaging of lead V4 was used to... Read More about The effect of beat interval on ventricular repolarisation in atrial fibrillation.

Validation of an algorithm to reveal the U wave in atrial fibrillation (2018)
Journal Article
Al-Karadi, M. S., Wilkinson, A. J., Caldwell, J., & Langley, P. (2018). Validation of an algorithm to reveal the U wave in atrial fibrillation. Scientific reports, 8(1), https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-30493-8

Major cardiac organisations recommend U wave abnormalities should be reported during ECG interpretation. However, U waves cannot be measured in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) due to the obscuring fibrillatory wave. The aim was to validate a U... Read More about Validation of an algorithm to reveal the U wave in atrial fibrillation.

Heart sound classification from unsegmented phonocardiograms (2017)
Journal Article
Langley, P., & Murray, A. (2017). Heart sound classification from unsegmented phonocardiograms. Physiological Measurement, 38(8), 1658-1670. https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6579/aa724c

Objective Most algorithms for automated analysis of phonocardiograms (PCG) require segmentation of the signal into the characteristic heart sounds. The aim was to assess the feasibility for accurate classification of heart sounds on short, unsegmente... Read More about Heart sound classification from unsegmented phonocardiograms.

Novel non-invasive algorithm to identify the origins of re-entry and ectopic foci in the atria from 64-lead ECGs. A computational study (2017)
Journal Article
Alday, E. A. P., Colman, M. A., Langley, P., & Zhang, H. (2017). Novel non-invasive algorithm to identify the origins of re-entry and ectopic foci in the atria from 64-lead ECGs. A computational study. PLoS computational biology, 13(3), e1005270. doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1005270

Atrial tachy-arrhytmias, such as atrial fibrillation (AF), are characterised by irregular electrical activity in the atria, generally associated with erratic excitation underlain by re-entrant scroll waves, fibrillatory conduction of multiple wavelet... Read More about Novel non-invasive algorithm to identify the origins of re-entry and ectopic foci in the atria from 64-lead ECGs. A computational study.

Accuracy of pulse interval timing in ambulatory blood pressure measurement (2016)
Journal Article
Kane, S. A., Blake, J. R., McArdle, F. J., Langley, P., & Sims, A. J. (2016). Accuracy of pulse interval timing in ambulatory blood pressure measurement. Scientific reports, 6(1), https://doi.org/10.1038/srep37472

Blood pressure (BP) monitors rely on pulse detection. Some blood pressure monitors use pulse timings to analyse pulse interval variability for arrhythmia screening, but this assumes that the pulse interval timings detected from BP cuffs are accurate... Read More about Accuracy of pulse interval timing in ambulatory blood pressure measurement.

A study on stability analysis of atrial repolarization variability using ARX model in sinus rhythm and atrial tachycardia ECGs (2016)
Journal Article
Sivaraman, J., Uma, G., Langley, P., Umapathy, M., Venkatesan, S., & Palanikumar, G. (2016). A study on stability analysis of atrial repolarization variability using ARX model in sinus rhythm and atrial tachycardia ECGs. Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, 137, 341-351. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmpb.2016.10.005

© 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd Background The interaction between the PTa and PP interval dynamics from the surface ECG is seldom explained. Mathematical modeling of these intervals is of interest in finding the relationship between the heart rate and r... Read More about A study on stability analysis of atrial repolarization variability using ARX model in sinus rhythm and atrial tachycardia ECGs.

The atrial T wave: The elusive electrocardiographic wave exposed by a case of shifting atrial pacemaker (2016)
Journal Article
Langley, P., & Caldwell, J. (2016). The atrial T wave: The elusive electrocardiographic wave exposed by a case of shifting atrial pacemaker. Journal of Electrocardiology, 49(4), 557-559. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2016.05.003

The atrial T wave (Ta wave) is the body surface manifestation of atrial repolarisation and, unlike the P wave (atrial depolarisation), is little recognised. We report the case of a patient with shifting pacemaker which clearly demonstrates the effect... Read More about The atrial T wave: The elusive electrocardiographic wave exposed by a case of shifting atrial pacemaker.

Opportunistic detection of atrial fibrillation using blood pressure monitors: a systematic review (2016)
Journal Article
Kane, S. A., Blake, J. R., McArdle, F. J., Langley, P., & Sims, A. J. (2016). Opportunistic detection of atrial fibrillation using blood pressure monitors: a systematic review. Open heart, 3(1), e000362. https://doi.org/10.1136/openhrt-2015-000362

Background: Atrial Fibrillation (AF) affects around 2% of the population and early detection is beneficial, allowing patients to begin potentially life-saving anticoagulant therapies. Blood pressure (BP) monitors may offer an opportunity to screen fo... Read More about Opportunistic detection of atrial fibrillation using blood pressure monitors: a systematic review.

A non-invasive, home-based EEG hypoglycaemia warning system for personal monitoring using skin surface electrodes : a single-case feasibility study (2016)
Journal Article
Clewett, C. J., Langley, P., Bateson, A. D., Asghar, A., & Wilkinson, A. J. (2016). A non-invasive, home-based EEG hypoglycaemia warning system for personal monitoring using skin surface electrodes : a single-case feasibility study. Health Technology Letters, 3(1), 2-5. https://doi.org/10.1049/htl.2015.0037

Hypoglycaemia unawareness is a common condition associated with increased risk of severe hypoglycaemia. The purpose of the authors' study was to develop a simple to use, home-based and non-invasive hypoglycaemia warning system based on electroencepha... Read More about A non-invasive, home-based EEG hypoglycaemia warning system for personal monitoring using skin surface electrodes : a single-case feasibility study.

The U wave in atrial fibrillation (2016)
Journal Article
Langley, P., Bourke, J. P., & Murray, A. (2016). The U wave in atrial fibrillation. Computing in cardiology, 42, 833-836. https://doi.org/10.1109/cic.2015.7411040

The U wave in ECGs of patients is difficult to observe because it is hidden under the atrial fibrillatory wave. Measurement and characteristics of the U wave in atrial fibrillation have not previously been described. Beat averaging was used to reveal... Read More about The U wave in atrial fibrillation.

Wavelet entropy as a measure of ventricular beat suppression from the electrocardiogram in atrial fibrillation (2015)
Journal Article
Langley, P. (2015). Wavelet entropy as a measure of ventricular beat suppression from the electrocardiogram in atrial fibrillation. Entropy, 17(9), (6397-6411). doi:10.3390/e17096397. ISSN 1099-4300

A novel method of quantifying the effectiveness of the suppression of ventricular activity from electrocardiograms (ECGs) in atrial fibrillation is proposed. The temporal distribution of the energy of wavelet coefficients is quantified by wavelet ent... Read More about Wavelet entropy as a measure of ventricular beat suppression from the electrocardiogram in atrial fibrillation.

Effect of catheter ablation on quality of life in patients with atrial fibrillation and its correlation with arrhythmia outcome (2015)
Journal Article
Raine, D., Langley, P., Shepherd, E., Lord, S., Murray, S., Murray, A., & Bourke, J. P. (2015). Effect of catheter ablation on quality of life in patients with atrial fibrillation and its correlation with arrhythmia outcome. Open heart, 2(1), e000302. doi:10.1136/openhrt-2015-000302

Objective To assess the effect of catheter ablation on atrial fibrillation (AF) symptoms and quality of life (QoL). Methods Patients with AF scheduled for ablation were recruited. Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) was performed and complex fractionated... Read More about Effect of catheter ablation on quality of life in patients with atrial fibrillation and its correlation with arrhythmia outcome.

Principal component analysis of atrial fibrillation: Inclusion of posterior ECG leads does not improve correlation with left atrial activity (2015)
Journal Article
Raine, D., Langley, P., Shepherd, E., Lord, S., Murray, S., Murray, A., & Bourke, J. P. (2015). Principal component analysis of atrial fibrillation: Inclusion of posterior ECG leads does not improve correlation with left atrial activity. Medical engineering & physics, 37(2), (251-255). doi:10.1016/j.medengphy.2014.12.008. ISSN 1350-4533

Background Lead V₁ is routinely analysed due to its large amplitude AF waveform. V₁ correlates strongly with right atrial activity but only moderately with left atrial activity. Posterior lead V₉ correlates strongest with left atrial activity. Aims (... Read More about Principal component analysis of atrial fibrillation: Inclusion of posterior ECG leads does not improve correlation with left atrial activity.

A new algorithm to diagnose atrial ectopic origin from multi lead ECG systems - insights from 3D virtual human atria and torso (2015)
Journal Article
Alday, E. A. P., Colman, M. A., Langley, P., Butters, T. D., Higham, J., Workman, A. J., …Zhang, H. (2015). A new algorithm to diagnose atrial ectopic origin from multi lead ECG systems - insights from 3D virtual human atria and torso. PLoS computational biology, 11(1), https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004026

Rapid atrial arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation (AF) predispose to ventricular arrhythmias, sudden cardiac death and stroke. Identifying the origin of atrial ectopic activity from the electrocardiogram (ECG) can help to diagnose the early onset... Read More about A new algorithm to diagnose atrial ectopic origin from multi lead ECG systems - insights from 3D virtual human atria and torso.

Characteristics of the atrial repolarization phase of the ECG in paroxysmal atrial fibrillation patients and controls (2015)
Journal Article
Langley, P., Bourke, J. P., & Giacopelli, D. (2015). Characteristics of the atrial repolarization phase of the ECG in paroxysmal atrial fibrillation patients and controls. Acta cardiologica, 70(6), 672-677. doi:10.2143/AC.70.6.3120179

© 2015, Acta Cardiologica. All rights reserved. Objective The aim of this study is to characterize the observable segment of the atrial repolarization (Ta wave) of the standard ECG during sinus rhythm in paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) patients... Read More about Characteristics of the atrial repolarization phase of the ECG in paroxysmal atrial fibrillation patients and controls.

Non-invasive estimation of left atrial dominant frequency in atrial fibrillation from different electrode sites : insight from body surface potential mapping (2014)
Journal Article
Bojarnejad, M., Blake, J. R., Bourke, J., Shepherd, E., Murray, A., & Langley, P. (2014). Non-invasive estimation of left atrial dominant frequency in atrial fibrillation from different electrode sites : insight from body surface potential mapping. Journal of atrial fibrillation, 7(3), 6-10

The dominant driving sources of atrial fibrillation are often found in the left atrium, but the expression of left atrial activation on the body surface is poorly understood. Using body surface potential mapping and simultaneous invasive measurements... Read More about Non-invasive estimation of left atrial dominant frequency in atrial fibrillation from different electrode sites : insight from body surface potential mapping.

Recurring patterns of atrial fibrillation in surface ECG predict restoration of sinus rhythm by catheter ablation (2014)
Journal Article
Di Marco, L. Y., Raine, D., Bourke, J. P., & Langley, P. (2014). Recurring patterns of atrial fibrillation in surface ECG predict restoration of sinus rhythm by catheter ablation. Computers in biology and medicine, 54, 172-179 . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compbiomed.2014.09.005

Background Non-invasive tools to help identify patients likely to benefit from catheter ablation (CA) of atrial fibrillation (AF) would facilitate personalised treatment planning. Aim To investigate atrial waveform organisation through recurrence plo... Read More about Recurring patterns of atrial fibrillation in surface ECG predict restoration of sinus rhythm by catheter ablation.

Extracting fetal heart beats from maternal abdominal recordings: Selection of the optimal principal components (2014)
Journal Article
Di Maria, C., Liu, C., Zheng, D., Murray, A., & Langley, P. (2014). Extracting fetal heart beats from maternal abdominal recordings: Selection of the optimal principal components. Physiological Measurement, 35(8), 1649-1664 . https://doi.org/10.1088/0967-3334/35/8/1649

This study presents a systematic comparison of different approaches to the automated selection of the principal components (PC) which optimise the detection of maternal and fetal heart beats from non-invasive maternal abdominal recordings. A public d... Read More about Extracting fetal heart beats from maternal abdominal recordings: Selection of the optimal principal components.

Recurring patterns in stationary intervals of abdominal uterine electromyograms during gestation (2014)
Journal Article
Di Marco, L. Y., Di Maria, C., Tong, W., Taggart, M. J., Robson, S. C., & Langley, P. (2014). Recurring patterns in stationary intervals of abdominal uterine electromyograms during gestation. Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing, 52(8), 707-716. doi:10.1007/s11517-014-1174-6

Abdominal uterine electromyograms (uEMG) studies have focused on uterine contractions to describe the evolution of uterine activity and preterm birth (PTB) prediction. Stationary, non-contracting uEMG has not been studied. The aim of the study was to... Read More about Recurring patterns in stationary intervals of abdominal uterine electromyograms during gestation.


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