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Human bipedal instability in tree canopy environments is reduced by "light touch" fingertip support (2017)
Journal Article
Johannsen, L., Coward, S. R., Martin, G. R., Wing, A. M., Casteren, A. V., Sellers, W. I., …Thorpe, S. K. (2017). Human bipedal instability in tree canopy environments is reduced by "light touch" fingertip support. Scientific reports, 7(1), https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-01265-7

© 2017 The Author(s). Whether tree canopy habitats played a sustained role in the ecology of ancestral bipedal hominins is unresolved. Some argue that arboreal bipedalism was prohibitively risky for hominins whose increasingly modern anatomy prevente... Read More about Human bipedal instability in tree canopy environments is reduced by "light touch" fingertip support.

Transverse fracture properties of green wood and the anatomy of six temperate tree species (2016)
Journal Article
Özden, S., Ennos, A. R., & Cattaneo, M. E. (2017). Transverse fracture properties of green wood and the anatomy of six temperate tree species. Forestry, 90(1), 58-69. https://doi.org/10.1093/forestry/cpw023

© Institute of Chartered Foresters, 2016. All rights reserved. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of wood anatomy and density on the mechanics of fracture when wood is split in the radial-longitudinal (RL) and tangential-longitudinal... Read More about Transverse fracture properties of green wood and the anatomy of six temperate tree species.

'Fire hardening' spear wood does slightly harden it, but makes it much weaker and more brittle (2016)
Journal Article
Ennos, A. R., & Chan, T. L. (2016). 'Fire hardening' spear wood does slightly harden it, but makes it much weaker and more brittle. Biology Letters, 12(5), https://doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2016.0174

It is usually assumed that 'fire hardening' the tips of spears, as practised by hunter-gatherers and early Homo spp., makes them harder and better suited for hunting. This suggestion was tested by subjecting coppiced poles of hazel to a fire-hardenin... Read More about 'Fire hardening' spear wood does slightly harden it, but makes it much weaker and more brittle.