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Transverse fracture properties of green wood and the anatomy of six temperate tree species (2016)
Journal Article
Özden, S., Ennos, A. R., & Cattaneo, M. E. (2017). Transverse fracture properties of green wood and the anatomy of six temperate tree species. Forestry, 90(1), (58-69). doi:10.1093/forestry/cpw023. ISSN 0015-752X

© Institute of Chartered Foresters, 2016. All rights reserved. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of wood anatomy and density on the mechanics of fracture when wood is split in the radial-longitudinal (RL) and tangential-longitudinal... Read More

'Fire hardening' spear wood does slightly harden it, but makes it much weaker and more brittle (2016)
Journal Article
Ennos, A. R., & Chan, T. L. (2016). 'Fire hardening' spear wood does slightly harden it, but makes it much weaker and more brittle. Biology Letters, 12(5), doi:10.1098/rsbl.2016.0174. ISSN 1744-9561

It is usually assumed that 'fire hardening' the tips of spears, as practised by hunter-gatherers and early Homo spp., makes them harder and better suited for hunting. This suggestion was tested by subjecting coppiced poles of hazel to a fire-hardenin... Read More