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Single-Step extraction-esterification process to produce Biodiesel from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) using microwave heating: a circular economy approach to making use of a difficult waste product. (2020)
Journal Article
Davies, E., Deutz, P., & Zein, S. (in press). Single-Step extraction-esterification process to produce Biodiesel from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) using microwave heating: a circular economy approach to making use of a difficult waste product. Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery,

This investigation explores single step biodiesel synthesis using Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) as a feedstock. Normally considered a waste product from the extraction process of palm oil, POME treatment is difficult and can cause significant environ... Read More about Single-Step extraction-esterification process to produce Biodiesel from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) using microwave heating: a circular economy approach to making use of a difficult waste product..

Optimization of pH as a strategy to improve enzymatic saccharification of wheat straw for enhancing bioethanol production (2020)
Journal Article
Abdulsattar, M. O., Abdulsattar, J. O., Greenway, G. M., Welham, K. J., Abdulsattar, M., Abdulsattar, J., …Zein, S. H. (2020). Optimization of pH as a strategy to improve enzymatic saccharification of wheat straw for enhancing bioethanol production. Journal of Analytical Science and Technology, 11(1), https://doi.org/10.1186/s40543-020-00217-7

In this work, wheat straw (WS) was used as a lignocellulosic substrate to investigate the influence of pH on enzymatic saccharification. The optimum enzymatic hydrolysis occurred at pH range 5.8 – 6.0, instead of 4.8 - 5.0 as has been widely reported... Read More about Optimization of pH as a strategy to improve enzymatic saccharification of wheat straw for enhancing bioethanol production.

An innovative method of extraction of coffee oil using an advanced microwave system: in comparison with conventional Soxhlet extraction method (2019)
Journal Article
Hibbert, S., Welham, K., & Zein, S. (2019). An innovative method of extraction of coffee oil using an advanced microwave system: in comparison with conventional Soxhlet extraction method. SN applied sciences, 1(11), https://doi.org/10.1007/s42452-019-1457-5

The production of energy and chemicals from waste biomass is an attractive alternative by comparison with first generation biofuels and fossil feedstocks. This paper investigates oil extraction from spent coffee grounds (SCG) by means of an advanced... Read More about An innovative method of extraction of coffee oil using an advanced microwave system: in comparison with conventional Soxhlet extraction method.

Rheological evaluation of the fabrication parameters of cellulose acetate butyrate membrane on CO2/N2 separation performance (2019)
Book Chapter
Lee, R., Jawad, Z., Ahmad, A., Chua, H., Ngang, H., & Zein, S. (2019). Rheological evaluation of the fabrication parameters of cellulose acetate butyrate membrane on CO2/N2 separation performance. In Z. A. Jawad (Ed.), Membrane Technology for CO2 Sequestration and Separation, 202-225. (1). Taylor & Francis

The rise in emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) mainly carbon dioxide (CO2) in recent years due to rapid development of modern civilisation, has been listed as the primary contributor to global warming. To address this global issue, membrane technolo... Read More about Rheological evaluation of the fabrication parameters of cellulose acetate butyrate membrane on CO2/N2 separation performance.

Wheat straw bio-refining. Part II: Optimization of the microwave radiation with sulphuric acid pre-treatment and its enzymatic hydrolysis for fermentable sugars (2017)
Journal Article
Festus, O., Skoulou, V. K., & Zein, S. H. (2017). Wheat straw bio-refining. Part II: Optimization of the microwave radiation with sulphuric acid pre-treatment and its enzymatic hydrolysis for fermentable sugars. Current Microwave Chemistry, 4(4), 306-316. https://doi.org/10.2174/2213335604666171103123459

Background: The potential of microwave-assisted heating for enhancing the alkaline pretreatment of lignocellulosic waste is highlighted in this work. Objective: To maximize separation of fermentable sugars from wheat straw. Methods: Wheat straw... Read More about Wheat straw bio-refining. Part II: Optimization of the microwave radiation with sulphuric acid pre-treatment and its enzymatic hydrolysis for fermentable sugars.

Wheat Straw Bio-refining. Part I: Optimization of the Microwave Radiation Process with Sulphuric Acid Pre-treatment (2017)
Journal Article
Demirhan, H., Fauzi, A., Skoulou, V. . K., Haywood, S. . . H., & Zein, S. . . H. (2017). Wheat Straw Bio-refining. Part I: Optimization of the Microwave Radiation Process with Sulphuric Acid Pre-treatment. Current Microwave Chemistry, 4(3), https://doi.org/10.2174/2213335604666170719113659

Background: This study investigates the microwave-assisted acid extraction of lignin from wheat straw. Methods: Two experimental design methods, the Central Composite Design (CCD) and the Response Surface Method (RSM) methods were used to select c... Read More about Wheat Straw Bio-refining. Part I: Optimization of the Microwave Radiation Process with Sulphuric Acid Pre-treatment.

Characterization of rice husk-based catalyst prepared via conventional and microwave carbonisation (2017)
Journal Article
Touhami, D., Zhu, Z., Balan, W. S., Janaun, J., Haywood, S., & Zein, S. (2017). Characterization of rice husk-based catalyst prepared via conventional and microwave carbonisation. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 5(3), 2388-2394. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2017.04.020

© 2017 Elsevier Ltd. Carbon-based sulphonated catalysts (CBSCs) were made from rice husk for biodiesel production. The CBSCs were prepared by microwave (MW) and conventional heating processes from the same feedstock. In both heating systems, the prep... Read More about Characterization of rice husk-based catalyst prepared via conventional and microwave carbonisation.

Nanocarbons from acid pretreated waste coffee grounds using microwave radiation (2017)
Journal Article
Zein, S. H., Gyamera, B. A., & Skoulou, V. K. (2017). Nanocarbons from acid pretreated waste coffee grounds using microwave radiation. Materials letters, 193, 46-49. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matlet.2017.01.100

This study investigates the use of microwave radiation to produce nanocarbons from Waste Coffee Grounds (WCG). It is first step to demonstrate the potential of integrating the microwave power to conventional methods of carbonaceous materials and nano... Read More about Nanocarbons from acid pretreated waste coffee grounds using microwave radiation.

Investigation of the chemocatalytic and biocatalytic valorization of a range of different lignin preparations: The importance of β-O-4 content (2016)
Journal Article
Lancefield, C. S., Rashid, G. M. M., Bouxin, F., Wasak, A., Tu, W., Hallett, J., …Bugg, T. D. H. (2016). Investigation of the chemocatalytic and biocatalytic valorization of a range of different lignin preparations: The importance of β-O-4 content. ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, 4(12), 6921-6930. https://doi.org/10.1021/acssuschemeng.6b01855

A set of seven different lignin preparations was generated from a range of organosolv (acidic, alkaline, ammonia-treated, and dioxane-based), ionic liquid, autohydrolysis, and Kraft pretreatments of lignocelluloses. Each lignin was characterized by 2... Read More about Investigation of the chemocatalytic and biocatalytic valorization of a range of different lignin preparations: The importance of β-O-4 content.

Influence of solvent exchange time on mixed matrix membrane separation performance for CO2/N2and a kinetic sorption study (2014)
Journal Article
Jawad, Z. A., Ahmad, A. L., Low, S. C., Chew, T. L., & Zein, S. H. (2015). Influence of solvent exchange time on mixed matrix membrane separation performance for CO2/N2and a kinetic sorption study. Journal of membrane science, 476, 590-601. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.memsci.2014.11.008

Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is the largest contributor of greenhouse gas emissions. Mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) have recently received attention as an attractive candidate for membrane-based separation, for which MMMs can serve as an alternative to conv... Read More about Influence of solvent exchange time on mixed matrix membrane separation performance for CO2/N2and a kinetic sorption study.

Green tea polyphenol-reduced graphene oxide: derivatisation, reduction efficiency, reduction mechanism and cytotoxicity (2014)
Journal Article
Abdullah, M. F., Zakaria, R., & Zein, S. H. S. (2014). Green tea polyphenol-reduced graphene oxide: derivatisation, reduction efficiency, reduction mechanism and cytotoxicity. RSC advances, 4(65), 34510-34518. https://doi.org/10.1039/c4ra04292a

This paper reports on the derivatisation, reduction efficiency, reduction mechanism and cytotoxicity of green tea polyphenol-reduced graphene oxide (GTP-RGO). The reduction of graphene oxide (GO) at 90°C using a weight ratio (WR) of GTP/GO=1 resulted... Read More about Green tea polyphenol-reduced graphene oxide: derivatisation, reduction efficiency, reduction mechanism and cytotoxicity.

Future scope and directions of nanotechnology in creating next-generation supercapacitors (2014)
Book Chapter
Kiamahalleh, M. V., & Zein, S. H. S. (2014). Future scope and directions of nanotechnology in creating next-generation supercapacitors. Nanostructured Ceramic Oxides for Supercapacitor Applications, (153-190 ). Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press. https://doi.org/10.1201/b16522-10

The primary global research scheme of the 21st century is nanotechnology. Looking forward to the future, nanotechnologies’ generalized diffusion will seem to turn them into supplies, generating more space for privileged and superior values of applica... Read More about Future scope and directions of nanotechnology in creating next-generation supercapacitors.

Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles: Electrospinning and calcination of hydroxyapatite/polyvinyl butyral nanofibers and growth kinetics (2012)
Journal Article
Zakaria, S. M., Sharif Zein, S. H., Othman, M. R., & Jansen, J. A. (2013). Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles: Electrospinning and calcination of hydroxyapatite/polyvinyl butyral nanofibers and growth kinetics. Journal of biomedical materials research. Part A, 101A(7), 1977-1985. doi:10.1002/jbm.a.34506

Electrospinning of hydroxyapatite (HA)/polyvinyl butyral solution resulted in the formation of fibers with average diameter of 937-1440 nm. These fibers were converted into HA nanoparticles with size < 100 nm after undergoing calcination treatment a... Read More about Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles: Electrospinning and calcination of hydroxyapatite/polyvinyl butyral nanofibers and growth kinetics.

Reinforcement of calcium phosphate cement with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and bovine serum albumin for injectable bone substitute applications (2010)
Journal Article
Chew, K., Low, K., Sharif Zein, S. H., McPhail, D. S., Gerhardt, L., Roether, J. A., & Boccaccini, A. R. (2011). Reinforcement of calcium phosphate cement with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and bovine serum albumin for injectable bone substitute applications. Journal of the mechanical behavior of biomedical materials, 4(3), (331-339). doi:10.1016/j.jmbbm.2010.10.013. ISSN 1751-6161

This paper presents the development of novel alternative injectable calcium phosphate cement (CPC) composites for orthopaedic applications. The new CPC composites comprise β-tri-calcium phosphate (β-TCP) and di-calcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA) mixe... Read More about Reinforcement of calcium phosphate cement with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and bovine serum albumin for injectable bone substitute applications.

MnO2-filled multiwalled carbon nanotube/polyaniline nanocomposites with enhanced interfacial interaction and electronic propertiesMnO2-filled multiwalled carbon nanotube/polyaniline nanocomposites with enhanced interfacial interaction and electronic prope (2009)
Journal Article
Razak, S. I. A., Ahmad, A. L., Zein, S. H. S., & Boccaccini, A. R. (2009). MnO2-filled multiwalled carbon nanotube/polyaniline nanocomposites with enhanced interfacial interaction and electronic propertiesMnO2-filled multiwalled carbon nanotube/polyaniline nanocomposites with enhanced interfacial interaction and electronic properties. Scripta materialia, 61(6), 592-595. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scriptamat.2009.05.030

This paper reports the synthesis and characterization of new ternary nanocomposites combining polyaniline (PANI), multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and manganese dioxide (MnO2). MnO2 was successfully incorporated within the MWCNTs. In situ polyme... Read More about MnO2-filled multiwalled carbon nanotube/polyaniline nanocomposites with enhanced interfacial interaction and electronic propertiesMnO2-filled multiwalled carbon nanotube/polyaniline nanocomposites with enhanced interfacial interaction and electronic prope.

Synthesis and characterization of TiO2 coated multiwalled carbon nanotubes using a sol gel method (2008)
Journal Article
Sharif Zein, S. H., & Boccaccini, A. R. (2008). Synthesis and characterization of TiO2 coated multiwalled carbon nanotubes using a sol gel method. Industrial & engineering chemistry research, 47(17), 6598-6606. https://doi.org/10.1021/ie701770q

A considerable improvement in the quality of TiO 2 coatings on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) was obtained by introducing a three-step purification and functionalization process which combines oxidation in air followed by sulfuric acid refluxe... Read More about Synthesis and characterization of TiO2 coated multiwalled carbon nanotubes using a sol gel method.

Kinetic studies on catalytic decomposition of methane to hydrogen and carbon over Ni/TiO2catalyst (2004)
Journal Article
Zein, S. H. S., Mohamed, A. R., & Sai, P. S. T. (2004). Kinetic studies on catalytic decomposition of methane to hydrogen and carbon over Ni/TiO2catalyst. Industrial & engineering chemistry research, 43(16), 4864-4870. https://doi.org/10.1021/ie034208f

Experiments were conducted in a fixed-bed catalytic reactor to study the decomposition of methane to hydrogen and carbon over 13 wt % Ni/TiO 2 -based catalyst. The variables include the volumetric flow rate of reactant (relative partial pressures of... Read More about Kinetic studies on catalytic decomposition of methane to hydrogen and carbon over Ni/TiO2catalyst.


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