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Single-Step extraction-esterification process to produce Biodiesel from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) using microwave heating: a circular economy approach to making use of a difficult waste product. (2020)
Journal Article
Davies, E., Deutz, P., & Zein, S. H. (in press). Single-Step extraction-esterification process to produce Biodiesel from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) using microwave heating: a circular economy approach to making use of a difficult waste product. Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13399-020-00856-1

This investigation explores single step biodiesel synthesis using Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) as a feedstock. Normally considered a waste product from the extraction process of palm oil, POME treatment is difficult and can cause significant environ... Read More about Single-Step extraction-esterification process to produce Biodiesel from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) using microwave heating: a circular economy approach to making use of a difficult waste product..

Optimization of pH as a strategy to improve enzymatic saccharification of wheat straw for enhancing bioethanol production (2020)
Journal Article
Abdulsattar, M. O., Abdulsattar, J. O., Greenway, G. M., Welham, K. J., Abdulsattar, M., Abdulsattar, J., …Zein, S. H. (2020). Optimization of pH as a strategy to improve enzymatic saccharification of wheat straw for enhancing bioethanol production. Journal of Analytical Science and Technology, 11(1), https://doi.org/10.1186/s40543-020-00217-7

In this work, wheat straw (WS) was used as a lignocellulosic substrate to investigate the influence of pH on enzymatic saccharification. The optimum enzymatic hydrolysis occurred at pH range 5.8 – 6.0, instead of 4.8 - 5.0 as has been widely reported... Read More about Optimization of pH as a strategy to improve enzymatic saccharification of wheat straw for enhancing bioethanol production.

An innovative method of extraction of coffee oil using an advanced microwave system: in comparison with conventional Soxhlet extraction method (2019)
Journal Article
Hibbert, S., Welham, K., & Zein, S. (2019). An innovative method of extraction of coffee oil using an advanced microwave system: in comparison with conventional Soxhlet extraction method. SN applied sciences, 1(11), https://doi.org/10.1007/s42452-019-1457-5

The production of energy and chemicals from waste biomass is an attractive alternative by comparison with first generation biofuels and fossil feedstocks. This paper investigates oil extraction from spent coffee grounds (SCG) by means of an advanced... Read More about An innovative method of extraction of coffee oil using an advanced microwave system: in comparison with conventional Soxhlet extraction method.

Rheological evaluation of the fabrication parameters of cellulose acetate butyrate membrane on CO2/N2 separation performance (2019)
Book Chapter
Lee, R., Jawad, Z., Ahmad, A., Chua, H., Ngang, H., & Zein, S. (2019). Rheological evaluation of the fabrication parameters of cellulose acetate butyrate membrane on CO2/N2 separation performance. In Z. A. Jawad (Ed.), Membrane Technology for CO2 Sequestration and Separation, 202-225. (1). Taylor & Francis

The rise in emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) mainly carbon dioxide (CO2) in recent years due to rapid development of modern civilisation, has been listed as the primary contributor to global warming. To address this global issue, membrane technolo... Read More about Rheological evaluation of the fabrication parameters of cellulose acetate butyrate membrane on CO2/N2 separation performance.

Wheat straw bio-refining. Part II: Optimization of the microwave radiation with sulphuric acid pre-treatment and its enzymatic hydrolysis for fermentable sugars (2017)
Journal Article
Festus, O., Skoulou, V. K., & Zein, S. H. (2017). Wheat straw bio-refining. Part II: Optimization of the microwave radiation with sulphuric acid pre-treatment and its enzymatic hydrolysis for fermentable sugars. Current Microwave Chemistry, 4(4), 306-316. https://doi.org/10.2174/2213335604666171103123459

Background: The potential of microwave-assisted heating for enhancing the alkaline pretreatment of lignocellulosic waste is highlighted in this work. Objective: To maximize separation of fermentable sugars from wheat straw. Methods: Wheat straw... Read More about Wheat straw bio-refining. Part II: Optimization of the microwave radiation with sulphuric acid pre-treatment and its enzymatic hydrolysis for fermentable sugars.

Wheat Straw Bio-refining. Part I: Optimization of the Microwave Radiation Process with Sulphuric Acid Pre-treatment (2017)
Journal Article
Demirhan, H., Fauzi, A., Skoulou, V. . K., Haywood, S. . . H., & Zein, S. . . H. (2017). Wheat Straw Bio-refining. Part I: Optimization of the Microwave Radiation Process with Sulphuric Acid Pre-treatment. Current Microwave Chemistry, 4(3), https://doi.org/10.2174/2213335604666170719113659

Background: This study investigates the microwave-assisted acid extraction of lignin from wheat straw. Methods: Two experimental design methods, the Central Composite Design (CCD) and the Response Surface Method (RSM) methods were used to select c... Read More about Wheat Straw Bio-refining. Part I: Optimization of the Microwave Radiation Process with Sulphuric Acid Pre-treatment.

Characterization of rice husk-based catalyst prepared via conventional and microwave carbonisation (2017)
Journal Article
Touhami, D., Zhu, Z., Balan, W. S., Janaun, J., Haywood, S., & Zein, S. (2017). Characterization of rice husk-based catalyst prepared via conventional and microwave carbonisation. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 5(3), 2388-2394. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2017.04.020

© 2017 Elsevier Ltd. Carbon-based sulphonated catalysts (CBSCs) were made from rice husk for biodiesel production. The CBSCs were prepared by microwave (MW) and conventional heating processes from the same feedstock. In both heating systems, the prep... Read More about Characterization of rice husk-based catalyst prepared via conventional and microwave carbonisation.

Nanocarbons from acid pretreated waste coffee grounds using microwave radiation (2017)
Journal Article
Zein, S. H., Gyamera, B. A., & Skoulou, V. K. (2017). Nanocarbons from acid pretreated waste coffee grounds using microwave radiation. Materials letters, 193, 46-49. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matlet.2017.01.100

This study investigates the use of microwave radiation to produce nanocarbons from Waste Coffee Grounds (WCG). It is first step to demonstrate the potential of integrating the microwave power to conventional methods of carbonaceous materials and nano... Read More about Nanocarbons from acid pretreated waste coffee grounds using microwave radiation.

Investigation of the chemocatalytic and biocatalytic valorization of a range of different lignin preparations: The importance of β-O-4 content (2016)
Journal Article
Lancefield, C. S., Rashid, G. M. M., Bouxin, F., Wasak, A., Tu, W., Hallett, J., …Bugg, T. D. H. (2016). Investigation of the chemocatalytic and biocatalytic valorization of a range of different lignin preparations: The importance of β-O-4 content. ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, 4(12), 6921-6930. https://doi.org/10.1021/acssuschemeng.6b01855

A set of seven different lignin preparations was generated from a range of organosolv (acidic, alkaline, ammonia-treated, and dioxane-based), ionic liquid, autohydrolysis, and Kraft pretreatments of lignocelluloses. Each lignin was characterized by 2... Read More about Investigation of the chemocatalytic and biocatalytic valorization of a range of different lignin preparations: The importance of β-O-4 content.

Effect of ions in ionic liquids on the characteristics of cellulose from coconut husk fibres (2016)
Journal Article
Reh, N. A., Zakaria, R., & Zein, S. H. (2016). Effect of ions in ionic liquids on the characteristics of cellulose from coconut husk fibres. International journal of biomedical engineering and technology, 21(1), 80-94. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJBET.2016.076734

This paper reports the properties of cellulose nanowhiskers as new potential biomaterials. Cellulose nanowhiskers were produced from coconut husk fibres using four different anions of ionic liquids: 1-butyl-3-mehtylimidzalium chloride, 1-butyl-3-meht... Read More about Effect of ions in ionic liquids on the characteristics of cellulose from coconut husk fibres.

Incorporation of inorganic carbon nanotubes fillers into the CA polymeric matrix for improvement in CO2/N2 separation (2015)
Journal Article
Jawad, Z. A., Ahmad, A. L., Low, S. C., & Zein, S. H. (2015). Incorporation of inorganic carbon nanotubes fillers into the CA polymeric matrix for improvement in CO2/N2 separation. Current nanoscience, 11(1), 69-79. https://doi.org/10.2174/1573413710666140922224633

Among all separation techniques, membrane technology has been shown to reduce CO 2 emissions without any phase changes due to its rapid, energy efficient process. The membrane-based gas separation must consist of a defect-free, thin, dense skin layer... Read More about Incorporation of inorganic carbon nanotubes fillers into the CA polymeric matrix for improvement in CO2/N2 separation.

Influence of solvent exchange time on mixed matrix membrane separation performance for CO2/N2and a kinetic sorption study (2014)
Journal Article
Jawad, Z. A., Ahmad, A. L., Low, S. C., Chew, T. L., & Zein, S. H. (2015). Influence of solvent exchange time on mixed matrix membrane separation performance for CO2/N2and a kinetic sorption study. Journal of membrane science, 476, 590-601. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.memsci.2014.11.008

Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is the largest contributor of greenhouse gas emissions. Mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) have recently received attention as an attractive candidate for membrane-based separation, for which MMMs can serve as an alternative to conv... Read More about Influence of solvent exchange time on mixed matrix membrane separation performance for CO2/N2and a kinetic sorption study.

Green tea polyphenol-reduced graphene oxide: derivatisation, reduction efficiency, reduction mechanism and cytotoxicity (2014)
Journal Article
Abdullah, M. F., Zakaria, R., & Zein, S. H. S. (2014). Green tea polyphenol-reduced graphene oxide: derivatisation, reduction efficiency, reduction mechanism and cytotoxicity. RSC advances, 4(65), 34510-34518. https://doi.org/10.1039/c4ra04292a

This paper reports on the derivatisation, reduction efficiency, reduction mechanism and cytotoxicity of green tea polyphenol-reduced graphene oxide (GTP-RGO). The reduction of graphene oxide (GO) at 90°C using a weight ratio (WR) of GTP/GO=1 resulted... Read More about Green tea polyphenol-reduced graphene oxide: derivatisation, reduction efficiency, reduction mechanism and cytotoxicity.

Future scope and directions of nanotechnology in creating next-generation supercapacitors (2014)
Book Chapter
Kiamahalleh, M. V., & Zein, S. H. S. (2014). Future scope and directions of nanotechnology in creating next-generation supercapacitors. Nanostructured Ceramic Oxides for Supercapacitor Applications, (153-190 ). Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press. https://doi.org/10.1201/b16522-10

The primary global research scheme of the 21st century is nanotechnology. Looking forward to the future, nanotechnologies’ generalized diffusion will seem to turn them into supplies, generating more space for privileged and superior values of applica... Read More about Future scope and directions of nanotechnology in creating next-generation supercapacitors.

A cellulose acetate/multi-walled carbon nanotube mixed matrix membrane for CO2/N2separation (2013)
Journal Article
Ahmad, A. L., Jawad, Z. A., Low, S. C., & Zein, S. H. (2014). A cellulose acetate/multi-walled carbon nanotube mixed matrix membrane for CO2/N2separation. Journal of membrane science, 451, 55-66. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.memsci.2013.09.043

Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions have been rising indiscriminately and are becoming a major contributor to Earth's greenhouse effect. One of the most promising means of separating the hazardous CO 2 gas is to develop a cost effective and high-perform... Read More about A cellulose acetate/multi-walled carbon nanotube mixed matrix membrane for CO2/N2separation.

Comparison of the pervaporation performance of various types of carbon nanotube-based nanocomposites in the dehydration of acetone (2013)
Journal Article
Yeang, Q. W., Zein, S. H. S., Sulong, A. B., & Tan, S. H. (2013). Comparison of the pervaporation performance of various types of carbon nanotube-based nanocomposites in the dehydration of acetone. Separation and purification technology, 107, 252-263. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2013.01.031

The present work focuses on the functionalisation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) in order to improve the compatibility and dispersion of MWCNTs in a chitosan (CS) matrix. The resultant PVA-MWCNT/CS nanocompos... Read More about Comparison of the pervaporation performance of various types of carbon nanotube-based nanocomposites in the dehydration of acetone.

Cytocompatibility, bioactivity and mechanical strength of calcium phosphate cement reinforced with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and bovine serum albumin (2012)
Journal Article
Gholami, F., Zein, S. H. S., Gerhardt, L. C., Low, K. L., Tan, S. H., McPhail, D. S., …Boccaccini, A. R. (2013). Cytocompatibility, bioactivity and mechanical strength of calcium phosphate cement reinforced with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and bovine serum albumin. Ceramics international, 39(5), 4975-4983. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ceramint.2012.11.094

This paper reports on the in vitro cytotoxicity, bioactivity behaviour and mechanical properties of novel injectable calcium phosphate cement filled with hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes and bovine serum albumin (CPC/MWCNT-OH/BSA). To predi... Read More about Cytocompatibility, bioactivity and mechanical strength of calcium phosphate cement reinforced with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and bovine serum albumin.

The electrochemical studies of the corrosion resistance behaviour of hydroxyapatite coatings on stainless steel fabricated by electrophoretic deposition (2012)
Journal Article
Chew, K. K., Zein, S. H. S., Ahmad, A. L., McPhail, D. S., & Abdullah, M. F. (2013). The electrochemical studies of the corrosion resistance behaviour of hydroxyapatite coatings on stainless steel fabricated by electrophoretic deposition. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 19(4), 1123-1129. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiec.2012.12.008

HA was coated on stainless steel (SS) 316L by using electrophoretic deposition to impart corrosion resistance upon SS 316L. Consequently, corrosion behaviour of HA coated SS 316L deposited from applied voltages 10. V to 60. V (denoted as HA/SS316L-10... Read More about The electrochemical studies of the corrosion resistance behaviour of hydroxyapatite coatings on stainless steel fabricated by electrophoretic deposition.

Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles: Electrospinning and calcination of hydroxyapatite/polyvinyl butyral nanofibers and growth kinetics (2012)
Journal Article
Zakaria, S. M., Sharif Zein, S. H., Othman, M. R., & Jansen, J. A. (2013). Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles: Electrospinning and calcination of hydroxyapatite/polyvinyl butyral nanofibers and growth kinetics. Journal of biomedical materials research. Part A, 101A(7), 1977-1985. doi:10.1002/jbm.a.34506

Electrospinning of hydroxyapatite (HA)/polyvinyl butyral solution resulted in the formation of fibers with average diameter of 937-1440 nm. These fibers were converted into HA nanoparticles with size < 100 nm after undergoing calcination treatment a... Read More about Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles: Electrospinning and calcination of hydroxyapatite/polyvinyl butyral nanofibers and growth kinetics.