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Atmospheric carbon capture performance of legacy iron and steel waste (2019)
Journal Article
Pullin, H., Bray, A. W., Burke, I. T., Muir, D. D., Sapsford, D. J., Mayes, W. M., & Renforth, P. (in press). Atmospheric carbon capture performance of legacy iron and steel waste. Environmental Science and Technology, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b01265

Legacy iron (Fe) and steel wastes have been identified as a significant source of silicate minerals, which can undergo carbonation reactions and thus sequester carbon dioxide (CO2). In reactor experiments, i.e., at elevated temperatures, pressures, o... Read More

Constructed wetlands for steel slag leachate management: Partitioning of arsenic, chromium, and vanadium in waters, sediments, and plants (2019)
Journal Article
Gomes, H., Mayes, W., Whitby, P., & Rogerson, M. (2019). Constructed wetlands for steel slag leachate management: Partitioning of arsenic, chromium, and vanadium in waters, sediments, and plants. Journal of environmental management, 243, 30-38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.04.127

Constructed wetlands can treat highly alkaline leachate resulting from the weathering of steel slag before reuse (e.g. as aggregate) or during disposal in repositories and legacy sites. This study aimed to assess how metal(loid)s soluble at high pH,... Read More

Vanadium: A re-emerging environmental hazard (2018)
Journal Article
Watt, J. A., Burke, I. T., Edwards, R. A., Malcolm, H. M., Mayes, W. M., Olszewska, J. P., …Spears, B. M. (2018). Vanadium: A re-emerging environmental hazard. Environmental Science and Technology, 52(21), 11973-11974. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.8b05560

Vanadium (V) is a contaminant which has been long confined to the annals of regulatory history. This follows the reduction of its historical primary source (fossil fuel emissions) since the 1970s (e.g., by 80% in the UK). However, V is quickly becomi... Read More

Leaching behaviour of co-disposed steel making wastes: Effects of aeration on leachate chemistry and vanadium mobilisation (2018)
Journal Article
Hobson, A. J., Stewart, D. I., Mortimer, R. J., Mayes, W. M., Rogerson, M., & Burke, I. T. (2018). Leaching behaviour of co-disposed steel making wastes: Effects of aeration on leachate chemistry and vanadium mobilisation. Waste Management, 81, 1-10. doi:10.1016/j.wasman.2018.09.046

Steelmaking wastes stored in landfill, such as slag and spent refractory liners, are often enriched in toxic trace metals (including V). These may become mobile in highly alkaline leachate generated during weathering. Fresh steelmaking waste was char... Read More

Options for managing alkaline steel slag leachate: A life cycle assessment (2018)
Journal Article
Gomes, H. I., Mayes, W. M., Baxter, H. A., Jarvis, A. P., Burke, I. T., Stewart, D. I., & Rogerson, M. (2018). Options for managing alkaline steel slag leachate: A life cycle assessment. Journal of cleaner production, 202, 401-412. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.08.163

Management of steel slag (a major by-product of the steel industry) includes the treatment of highly alkaline leachate (pH > 11.5) from rainwater infiltration of slag deposits to prevent adverse impact upon surface or ground waters. This study aims t... Read More

Behaviour and fate of vanadium during the aerobic neutralisation of hyperalkaline slag leachate (2018)
Journal Article
Hobson, A. J., Stewart, D. I., Bray, A. W., Mortimer, R. J., Mayes, W. M., Riley, A. L., …Burke, I. T. (2018). Behaviour and fate of vanadium during the aerobic neutralisation of hyperalkaline slag leachate. The Science of the total environment, 643, 1191-1199. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.06.272

© 2018 Vanadium is a toxic metal present in alkaline leachates produced during the weathering of steel slags. Slag leaching can therefore have deleterious effects on local watercourses due to metal toxicity, the effects of the high pH (9–12.5) and ra... Read More

Atmospheric CO2 sequestration in iron and steel slag: Consett, Co. Durham, UK (2018)
Journal Article
Mayes, W. M., Riley, A. L., Gomes, H., Brabham, P., Hamlyn, J., Pullin, H., & Renforth, P. (2018). Atmospheric CO2 sequestration in iron and steel slag: Consett, Co. Durham, UK. Environmental Science and Technology, 52(14), 7892-7900. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.8b01883

Carbonate formation in waste from the steel industry could constitute a non-trivial proportion of global requirements to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere at potentially low cost. To constrain this potential, we examined atmospheric carbon di... Read More

Recovery of Al, Cr and V from steel slag by bioleaching: batch and column experiments (2018)
Journal Article
Gomes, H. I., Funari, V., Mayes, W. M., Rogerson, M., & Prior, T. J. (2018). Recovery of Al, Cr and V from steel slag by bioleaching: batch and column experiments. Journal of environmental management, 222, 30-36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2018.05.056

Steel slag is a major by-product of the steel industry and a potential resource of technology critical elements. For this study, a basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steel slag was tested for bacterial leaching and recovery of aluminium (Al), chromium (Cr),... Read More

Hydration of dicalcium silicate and diffusion through neo-formed calcium-silicate-hydrates at weathered surfaces control the long-term leaching behaviour of basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steelmaking slag (2018)
Journal Article
Stewart, D. I., Bray, A. W., Udoma, G., Hobson, A. J., Mayes, W. M., Rogerson, M., & Burke, I. T. (2018). Hydration of dicalcium silicate and diffusion through neo-formed calcium-silicate-hydrates at weathered surfaces control the long-term leaching behaviour of basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steelmaking slag. Environmental science and pollution research international, 25(10), 9861-9872. doi:10.1007/s11356-018-1260-7

© 2018 The Author(s) Alkalinity generation and toxic trace metal (such as vanadium) leaching from basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steel slag particles must be properly understood and managed by pre-conditioning if beneficial reuse of slag is to be maximis... Read More

Hydraulic and biotic impacts on neutralisation of high-pH waters (2017)
Journal Article
Gomes, H. I., Mayes, W. M., Rogerson, M., Burke, I. T., & Stewart, D. I. (2017). Hydraulic and biotic impacts on neutralisation of high-pH waters. The Science of the total environment, 601-602, 1271-1279. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.05.248

The management of alkaline (pH 11–12.5) leachate is an important issue associated with the conditioning, afteruse or disposal of steel slags. Passive in-gassing of atmospheric CO2 is a low cost option for reducing Ca(OH)2 alkalinity, as Ca(OH)2 is ne... Read More

Sustained bauxite residue rehabilitation with gypsum and organic matter 16 years after initial treatment (2017)
Journal Article
Bray, A. W., Stewart, D. I., Courtney, R., Rout, S. P., Humphreys, P. N., Mayes, W. M., & Burke, I. T. (2018). Sustained bauxite residue rehabilitation with gypsum and organic matter 16 years after initial treatment. Environmental Science and Technology, 52(1), 152-161. doi:10.1021/acs.est.7b03568

Bauxite residue is a high volume by-product of alumina manufacture which is commonly disposed of in purpose-built bauxite residue disposal areas (BRDAs). Natural waters interacting with bauxite residue are characteristically highly alkaline, and have... Read More

Mechanism of Vanadium Leaching during Surface Weathering of Basic Oxygen Furnace Steel Slag Blocks: A Microfocus X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy and Electron Microscopy Study (2017)
Journal Article
Hobson, A. J., Stewart, D. I., Bray, A. W., Mortimer, R. J. G., Mayes, W. M., Rogerson, M., & Burke, I. T. (2017). Mechanism of Vanadium Leaching during Surface Weathering of Basic Oxygen Furnace Steel Slag Blocks: A Microfocus X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy and Electron Microscopy Study. Environmental Science and Technology, 51(14), 7823-7830. doi:10.1021/acs.est.7b00874

© 2017 American Chemical Society. Basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steelmaking slag is enriched in potentially toxic V which may become mobilized in high pH leachate during weathering. BOF slag was weathered under aerated and air-excluded conditions for 6... Read More

Can aggregate quarry silt lagoons provide resources for wading birds? (2017)
Journal Article
Day, G., Mayes, W. M., Wheeler, P. M., & Hull, S. L. (2017). Can aggregate quarry silt lagoons provide resources for wading birds?. Ecological engineering, 105, 189-197. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2017.04.055

Wading birds have declined across Europe as the intensification of lowland agriculture has resulted in the loss and degradation of wetland areas. Lowland aggregate extraction sites that incorporate areas of fine, waste sediments deposited in silt lag... Read More

Resource recovery and remediation of highly alkaline residues : a political-industrial ecology approach to building a circular economy (2017)
Journal Article
Deutz, P., Baxter, H., Gibbs, D., Mayes, W. M., & Gomes, H. I. (2017). Resource recovery and remediation of highly alkaline residues : a political-industrial ecology approach to building a circular economy. Geoforum, 85, 336-344. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2017.03.021

Highly alkaline industrial residues (e.g., steel slag, bauxite processing residue (red mud) and ash from coal combustion) have been identified as stocks of potentially valuable metals. Technological change has created demand for metals, such as vanad... Read More

Identifying pathways of exposure to highway pollutants in great crested newt (Triturus cristatus) road mitigation tunnels: Exposure pathways of highway pollutants to Triturus cristatus (2017)
Journal Article
White, K. J., Mayes, W. M., & Petrovan, S. O. (2017). Identifying pathways of exposure to highway pollutants in great crested newt (Triturus cristatus) road mitigation tunnels: Exposure pathways of highway pollutants to Triturus cristatus. Water and environment journal : the journal / the Chartered Institution of Water and Environmental Management, 31(3), 310-316. https://doi.org/10.1111/wej.12244

Road mitigation tunnels are increasingly deployed for amphibians but very little is known about chemical pollution in such schemes. We assessed pollution pressures associated with road runoff at a major great crested newt mitigation scheme in England... Read More

Removal and recovery of vanadium from alkaline steel slag leachates with anion exchange resins (2016)
Journal Article
Gomes, H. I., Jones, A., Rogerson, M., Greenway, G. M., Lisbona, D. F., Burke, I. T., & Mayes, W. M. (2017). Removal and recovery of vanadium from alkaline steel slag leachates with anion exchange resins. Journal of environmental management, 187, 384-392. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.10.063

© 2016 The Author(s) Leachable vanadium (V) from steel production residues poses a potential environmental hazard due to its mobility and toxicity under the highly alkaline pH conditions that characterise these leachates. This work aims to test the e... Read More

Vanadium removal and recovery from bauxite residue leachates by ion exchange (2016)
Journal Article
Gomes, H. I., Jones, A., Rogerson, M., Burke, I. T., & Mayes, W. M. (2016). Vanadium removal and recovery from bauxite residue leachates by ion exchange. Environmental science and pollution research international, 23(22), (23034-23042). doi:10.1007/s11356-016-7514-3. ISSN 0944-1344

Bauxite residue is an important by-product of the alumina industry, and current management practices do not allow their full valorisation, especially with regard to the recovery of critical metals. This work aims to test the efficiency of ion exchang... Read More

Advances in understanding enviromental risks of red mud after the Ajka Spill, Hungary (2016)
Journal Article
Mayes, W. M., Burke, I. T., Gomes, H. I., Anton, Á. D., Molnár, M., Feigl, V., & Ujaczki, É. (2016). Advances in understanding enviromental risks of red mud after the Ajka Spill, Hungary. Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy, 2(4), 332-343. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40831-016-0050-z

In the 5 years since the 2010 Ajka red mud spill (Hungary), there have been 46 scientific studies assessing the key risks and impacts associated with the largest single release of bauxite-processing residue (red mud) to the environment. These studies... Read More

Alkaline residues and the environment: a review of impacts, management practices and opportunities (2015)
Journal Article
Gomes, H. I., Mayes, W. M., Rogerson, M., Stewart, D. I., & Burke, I. T. (2016). Alkaline residues and the environment: a review of impacts, management practices and opportunities. Journal of cleaner production, 112(4), 3571-3582. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.09.111

Around two billion tonnes of alkaline residues are produced globally each year by industries such as steel production, alumina refining and coal-fired power generation, with a total production estimate of 90 billion tonnes since industrialisation. Th... Read More

Long-term evolution of highly alkaline steel slag drainage waters (2015)
Journal Article
Riley, A. L., & Mayes, W. M. (2015). Long-term evolution of highly alkaline steel slag drainage waters. Environmental monitoring and assessment, 187(7), doi:10.1007/s10661-015-4693-1. ISSN 0167-6369

© 2015, Springer International Publishing Switzerland. The disposal of slag generated by the steel industry can have negative consequences upon the surrounding aquatic environment by the generation of high pH waters, leaching of potentially problemat... Read More