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Does knowing speaker sex facilitate vowel recognition at short durations? (2014)
Journal Article
Smith, D. R. R. (2014). Does knowing speaker sex facilitate vowel recognition at short durations?. Acta psychologica, 148(May), 81-90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actpsy.2014.01.010

A man, woman or child saying the same vowel do so with very different voices. The auditory system solves the complex problem of extracting what the man, woman or child has said despite substantial differences in the acoustic properties of their voice... Read More

Discrimination of speaker sex and size when glottal-pulse rate and vocal-tract length are controlled (2007)
Journal Article
Smith, D. R. R., Walters, T. C., & Patterson, R. D. (2007). Discrimination of speaker sex and size when glottal-pulse rate and vocal-tract length are controlled. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 122(6), (3628-3639). doi:10.1121/1.2799507. ISSN 0001-4966

A recent study [Smith and Patterson, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 118, 3177-3186 (2005)] demonstrated that both the glottal-pulse rate (GPR) and the vocal-tract length (VTL) of vowel sounds have a large effect on the perceived sex and age (or size) of a speak... Read More