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Investigation of the chemocatalytic and biocatalytic valorization of a range of different lignin preparations: The importance of β-O-4 content (2016)
Journal Article
Lancefield, C. S., Rashid, G. M. M., Bouxin, F., Wasak, A., Tu, W.-C., Hallett, J., Zein, S., Rodríguez, J., Jackson, S. D., Westwood, N. J., & Bugg, T. D. H. (2016). Investigation of the chemocatalytic and biocatalytic valorization of a range of different lignin preparations: The importance of β-O-4 content. ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, 4(12), 6921-6930. https://doi.org/10.1021/acssuschemeng.6b01855

A set of seven different lignin preparations was generated from a range of organosolv (acidic, alkaline, ammonia-treated, and dioxane-based), ionic liquid, autohydrolysis, and Kraft pretreatments of lignocelluloses. Each lignin was characterized by 2... Read More about Investigation of the chemocatalytic and biocatalytic valorization of a range of different lignin preparations: The importance of β-O-4 content.

Nanocarbons from acid pretreated waste coffee grounds using microwave radiation (2017)
Journal Article
Zein, S. H., Gyamera, B. A., & Skoulou, V. K. (2017). Nanocarbons from acid pretreated waste coffee grounds using microwave radiation. Materials letters, 193, 46-49. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matlet.2017.01.100

This study investigates the use of microwave radiation to produce nanocarbons from Waste Coffee Grounds (WCG). It is first step to demonstrate the potential of integrating the microwave power to conventional methods of carbonaceous materials and nano... Read More about Nanocarbons from acid pretreated waste coffee grounds using microwave radiation.

Characterization of rice husk-based catalyst prepared via conventional and microwave carbonisation (2017)
Journal Article
Touhami, D., Zhu, Z., Balan, W. S., Janaun, J., Haywood, S., & Zein, S. (2017). Characterization of rice husk-based catalyst prepared via conventional and microwave carbonisation. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 5(3), 2388-2394. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2017.04.020

© 2017 Elsevier Ltd. Carbon-based sulphonated catalysts (CBSCs) were made from rice husk for biodiesel production. The CBSCs were prepared by microwave (MW) and conventional heating processes from the same feedstock. In both heating systems, the prep... Read More about Characterization of rice husk-based catalyst prepared via conventional and microwave carbonisation.

Wheat Straw Bio-refining. Part I: Optimization of the Microwave Radiation Process with Sulphuric Acid Pre-treatment (2017)
Journal Article
Demirhan, H., Fauzi, A., Skoulou, V. . K., Haywood, S. . . H., & Zein, S. . . H. (2017). Wheat Straw Bio-refining. Part I: Optimization of the Microwave Radiation Process with Sulphuric Acid Pre-treatment. Current Microwave Chemistry, 4(3), https://doi.org/10.2174/2213335604666170719113659

Background: This study investigates the microwave-assisted acid extraction of lignin from wheat straw. Methods: Two experimental design methods, the Central Composite Design (CCD) and the Response Surface Method (RSM) methods were used to select c... Read More about Wheat Straw Bio-refining. Part I: Optimization of the Microwave Radiation Process with Sulphuric Acid Pre-treatment.

Wheat straw bio-refining. Part II: Optimization of the microwave radiation with sulphuric acid pre-treatment and its enzymatic hydrolysis for fermentable sugars (2017)
Journal Article
Festus, O., Skoulou, V. K., & Zein, S. H. (2017). Wheat straw bio-refining. Part II: Optimization of the microwave radiation with sulphuric acid pre-treatment and its enzymatic hydrolysis for fermentable sugars. Current Microwave Chemistry, 4(4), 306-316. https://doi.org/10.2174/2213335604666171103123459

Background: The potential of microwave-assisted heating for enhancing the alkaline pretreatment of lignocellulosic waste is highlighted in this work. Objective: To maximize separation of fermentable sugars from wheat straw. Methods: Wheat straw... Read More about Wheat straw bio-refining. Part II: Optimization of the microwave radiation with sulphuric acid pre-treatment and its enzymatic hydrolysis for fermentable sugars.