Skip to main content

Research Repository

See what's under the surface

Multilevel Modeling and Policy Development: Guidelines and Applications to Medical Travel

Garcia-Garzon, Eduardo; Zhukovsky, Peter; Haller, Elisa; Plakolm, Sara; Fink, David; Petrova, Dafina; Mahalingam, Vaishali; Menezes, Igor G.; Ruggeri, Kai


Eduardo Garcia-Garzon

Peter Zhukovsky

Elisa Haller

Sara Plakolm

David Fink

Dafina Petrova

Vaishali Mahalingam

Kai Ruggeri


Medical travel has expanded rapidly in recent years, resulting in new markets and increased access to medical care. Whereas several studies investigated the motives of individuals seeking healthcare abroad, the conventional analytical approach is limited by substantial caveats. Classical techniques as found in the literature cannot provide sufficient insight due to the nested nature of data generated. The application of adequate analytical techniques, specifically multilevel modeling, is scarce to non-existent in the context of medical travel. This study introduces the guidelines for application of multilevel techniques in public health research by presenting an application of multilevel modeling in analyzing the decision-making patterns of potential medical travelers. Benefits and potential limitations are discussed.

Journal Article Type Article
Publication Date May 24, 2016
Journal Frontiers in Psychology
Electronic ISSN 1664-1078
Publisher Frontiers Media
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 7
Article Number 752
APA6 Citation Garcia-Garzon, E., Zhukovsky, P., Haller, E., Plakolm, S., Fink, D., Petrova, D., …Ruggeri, K. (2016). Multilevel Modeling and Policy Development: Guidelines and Applications to Medical Travel. Frontiers in Psychology, 7,
Keywords Medical travel; Public health; Policy; Multilevel model; Hierarchical linear model; Medical tourism; Policy research
Publisher URL


Published article (355 Kb)

Copyright Statement
Copyright © 2016 Garcia-Garzon, Zhukovsky, Haller, Plakolm, Fink, Petrova, Mahalingam, Menezes and Ruggeri. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

You might also like

Downloadable Citations