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Cardiac Depression Scale: Mokken scaling in heart failure patients

Ski, Chantal F.; Thompson, David R.; Hare, David L.; Stewart, Andrew G.; Watson, Roger


Chantal F. Ski

David R. Thompson

David L. Hare

Andrew G. Stewart

Roger Watson


Background: There is a high prevalence of depression in patients with heart failure (HF) that is associated with worsening prognosis. The value of using a reliable and valid instrument to measure depression in this population is therefore essential. We validated the Cardiac Depression Scale (CDS) in heart failure patients using a model of ordinal unidimensional measurement known as Mokken scaling. Findings: We administered in face-to-face interviews the CDS to 603 patients with HF. Data were analysed using Mokken scale analysis. Items of the CDS formed a statistically significant unidimensional Mokken scale of low strength (H<0.40) and high reliability (Rho>0.8). Conclusions: The CDS has a hierarchy of items which can be interpreted in terms of the increasingly serious effects of depression occurring as a result of HF. Identifying an appropriate instrument to measure depression in patients with HF allows for early identification and better medical management. Keywords: Cardiac Depression Scale, Heart failure, Depression, Mokken scaling


Ski, C. F., Thompson, D. R., Hare, D. L., Stewart, A. G., & Watson, R. (2012). Cardiac Depression Scale: Mokken scaling in heart failure patients. Health and quality of life outcomes, 10(1), 141.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Nov 16, 2012
Publication Date Nov 23, 2012
Deposit Date Mar 17, 2015
Publicly Available Date Oct 27, 2022
Journal Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
Print ISSN 1477-7525
Electronic ISSN 1477-7525
Publisher Springer Verlag
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 10
Issue 1
Article Number ARTN 141
Pages 141
Keywords Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health; General Medicine
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Copyright Statement
© 2012 Ski et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and
reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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