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Violence, worry and trust in the emergence of weapon-carrying

Brennan, Iain R.



This paper identifies longitudinal predictors of weapon-carrying in a sample of 10–25 year olds in England and Wales. It conceptualises weapon-carrying as anticipation of an adverse event and proposes hypotheses about the origins of weapon-carrying derived from the field of risk analysis. Specifically, it tests if worry about victimisation and experience of violence predict later weapon-carrying and assesses the moderating influence of trust in the police. The results indicate that worry about victimisation does not predict weapon-carrying, but experience of violence does. Distrust of police and peer criminality were also identified as important precursors to weapon-carrying. The study provides further evidence that, at least over longer periods, weapon-carrying is a product of experience of violence and criminogenic factors rather than a response to concern about victimisation.


Brennan, I. R. (2021). Violence, worry and trust in the emergence of weapon-carrying. European Journal of Criminology,

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jul 26, 2021
Online Publication Date Nov 5, 2021
Publication Date 2021
Deposit Date Jul 29, 2021
Publicly Available Date Oct 18, 2021
Journal European Journal of Criminology
Print ISSN 1477-3708
Electronic ISSN 1741-2609
Publisher SAGE Publications
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Keywords Weapon; Violence; Trust in the police; Fear of crime
Public URL


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