Sandy beach social–ecological systems at risk: regime shifts, collapses, and governance challenges
Defeo, Omar; McLachlan, Anton; Armitage, Derek; Elliott, Michael; Pittman, Jeremy
Professor Mike Elliott Mike.Elliott@hull.ac.uk
Emeritus Professor of Estuarine and Coastal Sciences/ Research Professor, Institute of Estuarine and Coastal Studies
Approximately half of the world’s ice-free ocean coastline is composed of sandy beaches, which support a higher level of recreational use than any other ecosystem. However, the contribution of sandy beaches to societal welfare is under increasing risk from local and non-local pressures, including expanding human development and climate-related stressors. These pressures are impairing the capacity of beaches to meet recreational demand, provide food, protect livelihoods, and maintain biodiversity and water quality. This will increase the likelihood of social–ecological collapses and regime shifts, such that beaches will sustain neither the original ecosystem function nor the related services and societal goods and benefits that they provide. These social–ecological systems at the land–sea interface are subject to market forces, weak governance institutions, and societal indifference: most people want a beach, but few recognize it as an ecosystem at risk.
Defeo, O., McLachlan, A., Armitage, D., Elliott, M., & Pittman, J. (2021). Sandy beach social–ecological systems at risk: regime shifts, collapses, and governance challenges. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 19(10), 564-573. https://doi.org/10.1002/fee.2406
|Journal Article Type||Review|
|Acceptance Date||Jan 1, 2021|
|Online Publication Date||Sep 9, 2021|
|Deposit Date||Jun 1, 2022|
|Publicly Available Date||Jun 6, 2022|
|Journal||Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment|
|Publisher||Ecological Society of America|
|Peer Reviewed||Peer Reviewed|
Publisher Licence URL
© 2021 The Authors. <br /> This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribu-tion in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.
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