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How circular is your tyre: Experiences with extended producer responsibility from a circular economy perspective

Campbell-Johnston, Kieran; Calisto Friant, Martin; Thapa, Kaustubh; Lakerveld, Dirkjan; Vermeulen, Walter J.V.


Kieran Campbell-Johnston

Martin Calisto Friant

Kaustubh Thapa

Dirkjan Lakerveld

Walter J.V. Vermeulen


Claire Lea
Project Manager


The circular economy (CE) emphasises closing material loops to retain material value. The current practice of tyre recycling in the Netherlands, through a system of extended producer responsibility (EPR), appears an overwhelming success, with claims of 100% recovery. Yet, there is limited critical understanding regarding the system’s circularity, considering alternative value retention options and resource recovery outcomes. This study analyses this Dutch tyre EPR system and reflects on how it can be improved from a systemic CE perspective. It uses a qualitative case study approach, using interviews and a review of policy, legal and EPR reporting documents. This paper assesses the governance of this sector and reflects on the existing system, including its circularity and value retention outcomes. Our analysis reveals seven central issues concerning how the EPR system currently functions, resulting in limited circularity and sustainability outcomes, despite high material recovery levels. To address these issues we recommend the continuous improvement of recovery and sustainability targets beyond a single product life cycle, a more transparent and inclusive governance system, as well as a greater focus on sufficiency strategies, e.g. design for durability and a broader transformation of transport models. This paper adds a practical understanding of the capacity of EPR to contribute to CE.


Campbell-Johnston, K., Calisto Friant, M., Thapa, K., Lakerveld, D., & Vermeulen, W. J. (2020). How circular is your tyre: Experiences with extended producer responsibility from a circular economy perspective. Journal of cleaner production, 270, Article 122042.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date May 2, 2020
Online Publication Date May 11, 2020
Publication Date Oct 10, 2020
Deposit Date Jan 13, 2022
Publicly Available Date Feb 8, 2022
Journal Journal of Cleaner Production
Print ISSN 0959-6526
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 270
Article Number 122042
Keywords Circular economy; Policy analysis; Environmental governance; Sustainability; Extended producer responsibility; Tyre recycling
Public URL
Publisher URL
Additional Information This article is maintained by: Elsevier; Article Title: How circular is your tyre: Experiences with extended producer responsibility from a circular economy perspective; Journal Title: Journal of Cleaner Production; CrossRef DOI link to publisher maintained version:; Content Type: article; Copyright: © 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.


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Copyright Statement
© 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (

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