Manila, was one of the grandest early modern European cities in Asia, yet it was destroyed by fire and earthquake on numerous occasions. Over successive reconstructions, it evolved a style of architecture and urban planning that reconciled alien notions about space and place to local environmental realities. The city that materialised over the ensuing centuries was neither wholly European nor Asian, but a rich fusion of the two whose form and substance was ultimately determined by the twin threats of conflagration and seismic activity.
Bankoff, G. (2006). Fire and quake in the construction of Old Manila. Medieval History Journal, 10(1-2), 411-427. https://doi.org/10.1177/097194580701000215