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Frequency and timing of antenatal care in Kenya: explaining the variations between women of different communities

Magadi, MA; Madise, NJ; Rodrigues, RN; Magadi, Monica Akinyi; Madise, Nyovani Janet; Rodrigues, Roberto Nascimento; Magadi, Monica


MA Magadi

NJ Madise

RN Rodrigues

Monica Akinyi Magadi

Nyovani Janet Madise

Roberto Nascimento Rodrigues

Monica Magadi


Appropriate antenatal care is important in identifying and mitigating risk factors in pregnancy but many mothers in the developing world do not receive such care. This paper uses data from the 1993 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey to study the variations in the use of antenatal services in Kenya. The analysis is based on modelling the frequency and timing of antenatal visits using three-level linear regression models. The results show that the use of antenatal care in Kenya is associated with a range of socio-economic, cultural and reproductive factors. The availability and accessibility of health services and the desirability of a pregnancy are also important. Use of antenatal care is infrequent for unwanted and mistimed pregnancies; even women who use antenatal care frequently appear to be less consistent if a pregnancy is mistimed. The results also indicate that women are highly consistent in the use of antenatal care during pregnancies. The intra-woman correlation coefficient for the frequency of antenatal visits ranges between 50% and 80% with greater correlation for wanted pregnancies to women in urban areas.


Magadi, M. A., Madise, N. J., & Rodrigues, R. N. (2000). Frequency and timing of antenatal care in Kenya: explaining the variations between women of different communities. Social science & medicine, 51(4), 551-561.

Journal Article Type Article
Online Publication Date May 18, 2000
Publication Date Aug 15, 2000
Print ISSN 0277-9536
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 51
Issue 4
Pages 551-561
Keywords antenatal care; multilevel linear models; random coefficient models; intra-unit correlation; Kenya
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