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The Chinese version of the Outcome Expectations for Exercise scale: Validation study

Chiu, Yu-Yun; Lee, Ling-Ling; Ho, Chin-Chih; Wu, Shu-Chen; Watson, Roger


Yu-Yun Chiu

Ling-Ling Lee

Chin-Chih Ho

Shu-Chen Wu


Background: Estimates of the reliability and validity of the English nine-item Outcome Expectations for Exercise (OEE) scale have been tested and found to be valid for use in various settings, particularly among older people, with good internal consistency and validity. Data on the use of the OEE scale among older Chinese people living in the community and how cultural differences might affect the administration of the OEE scale are limited. Aim: To test the validity and reliability of the Chinese version of the Outcome Expectations for Exercise scale among older people. Methods: A cross-sectional validation study was designed to test the Chinese version of the OEE scale (OEE-C). Reliability was examined by testing both the internal consistency for the overall scale and the squared multiple correlation coefficient for the single item measure. The validity of the scale was tested on the basis of both a traditional psychometric test and a confirmatory factor analysis using structural equation modelling. The Mokken Scaling Procedure (MSP) was used to investigate if there were any hierarchical, cumulative sets of items in the measure. Results: The OEE-C scale was tested in a group of older people in Taiwan (n= 108, mean age = 77.1). There was acceptable internal consistency (alpha = .85) and model fit in the scale. Evidence of the validity of the measure was demonstrated by the tests for criterion-related validity and construct validity. There was a statistically significant correlation between exercise outcome expectations and exercise self-efficacy (r= .34, p < .01). An analysis of the Mokken Scaling Procedure found that nine items of the scale were all retained in the analysis and the resulting scale was reliable and statistically significant (p= .0008). Conclusion: The results obtained in the present study provided acceptable levels of reliability and validity evidence for the Chinese Outcome Expectations for Exercise scale when used with older people in Taiwan. Future testing of the OEE-C scale needs to be carried out to see whether these results are generalisable to older Chinese people living in urban areas. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Lee, L., Chiu, Y., Ho, C., Wu, S., & Watson, R. (2011). The Chinese version of the Outcome Expectations for Exercise scale: Validation study. International journal of nursing studies, 48(6), 672-680.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Nov 4, 2010
Online Publication Date Dec 3, 2010
Publication Date 2011-06
Print ISSN 0020-7489
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 48
Issue 6
Pages 672-680
Keywords Mokken scaling procedure; OEE-C scale; Older people; Physical activity; Reliability; Self-efficacy; Social cognitive theory; Validity
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