Skip to main content

Research Repository

Advanced Search

Cyborg cells: functionalisation of living cells with polymers and nanomaterials

Fakhrullin, Rawil F.; Zamaleeva, Alsu I.; Minullina, Renata T.; Konnova, Svetlana A.; Paunov, Vesselin N.


Rawil F. Fakhrullin

Alsu I. Zamaleeva

Renata T. Minullina

Svetlana A. Konnova

Vesselin N. Paunov


Living cells interfaced with a range of polyelectrolyte coatings, magnetic and noble metal nanoparticles, hard mineral shells and other complex nanomaterials can perform functions often completely different from their original specialisation. Such “cyborg cells” are already finding a range of novel applications in areas like whole cell biosensors, bioelectronics, toxicity microscreening, tissue engineering, cell implant protection and bioanalytical chemistry. In this tutorial review, we describe the development of novel methods for functionalisation of cells with polymers and nanoparticles and comment on future advances in this technology in the light of other literature approaches. We review recent studies on the cell viability and function upon direct deposition of nanoparticles, coating with polyelectrolytes, polymer assisted assembly of nanomaterials and hard shells on the cell surface. The cell toxicity issues are considered for many practical applications in terms of possible adverse effects of the deposited polymers, polyelectrolytes and nanoparticles on the cell surface.


Fakhrullin, R. F., Zamaleeva, A. I., Minullina, R. T., Konnova, S. A., & Paunov, V. N. (2012). Cyborg cells: functionalisation of living cells with polymers and nanomaterials. Chemical Society Reviews, 41(11), 4189.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Sep 23, 2011
Online Publication Date Apr 16, 2012
Publication Date 2012
Print ISSN 0306-0012
Electronic ISSN 1460-4744
Publisher Royal Society of Chemistry
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 41
Issue 11
Pages 4189
Keywords General Chemistry
Public URL
Publisher URL!divAbstract