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HDL-Associated Proteins in Subjects with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Proteomic Study

Butler, Alexandra E.; Moin, Abu Saleh Md; Reiner, Željko; Sathyapalan, Thozhukat; Jamialahmadi, Tannaz; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Atkin, Stephen L.


Alexandra E. Butler

Abu Saleh Md Moin

Željko Reiner

Tannaz Jamialahmadi

Amirhossein Sahebkar

Stephen L. Atkin


INTRODUCTION: Serum lipoproteins, with the exception of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), are increased in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and their levels may reflect the associated obesity and insulin resistance, but the nature of this association is not fully explained. Therefore, proteomic analysis of key proteins in lipoprotein metabolism was performed. METHODS: In this cohort study, plasma was collected from 234 women (137 with PCOS and 97 controls without PCOS). Somalogic proteomic analysis was undertaken for the following 19 proteins involved in lipoprotein, and particularly HDL, metabolism: alpha-1-antichymotrypsin; alpha-1-antitrypsin; apolipoproteins A-1, B, D, E, E2, E3, E4, L1, and M; clusterin; complement C3; hemopexin; heparin cofactor II; kininogen-1; serum amyloid A-1; amyloid beta A-4; and paraoxonase-1. RESULTS: The levels of apolipoprotein E were higher in PCOS (p = 0.012). However, the other isoforms of ApoE, ApoE2, E3, and E4, did not differ when compared with controls. ApoM was lower in PCOS (p = 0.000002). Complement C3 was higher in PCOS (p = 0.037), as was heparin cofactor II (HCFII) (p = 0.0004). The levels of the other proteins associated with lipoprotein metabolism did not differ between PCOS and controls. CONCLUSIONS: These data contribute to the concern of the deleterious dyslipidemia found in PCOS, with the novel combination reported here of higher levels of ApoE, C3 and HCFII together with lower ApoM. The dysregulation of these proteins could circumvent the protective effect of HDL-C and contribute to a more atherogenic profile that may increase cardiovascular risk.


Butler, A. E., Moin, A. S. M., Reiner, Ž., Sathyapalan, T., Jamialahmadi, T., Sahebkar, A., & Atkin, S. L. (2023). HDL-Associated Proteins in Subjects with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Proteomic Study. Cells, 12(6),

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Mar 1, 2023
Publication Date Mar 9, 2023
Deposit Date Apr 15, 2023
Publicly Available Date Apr 17, 2023
Journal Cells
Electronic ISSN 2073-4409
Publisher MDPI
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 12
Issue 6
Public URL


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Copyright Statement
© 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (

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