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Dual frequency ultrasonic cavitation in various liquids: High-speed imaging and acoustic pressure measurements

Morton, Justin A.; Khavari, Mohammad; Priyadarshi, Abhinav; Kaur, Amanpreet; Grobert, Nicole; Mi, Jiawei; Porfyrakis, Kyriakos; Prentice, Paul; Eskin, Dmitry G.; Tzanakis, Iakovos


Justin A. Morton

Mohammad Khavari

Abhinav Priyadarshi

Amanpreet Kaur

Nicole Grobert

Kyriakos Porfyrakis

Paul Prentice

Dmitry G. Eskin

Iakovos Tzanakis


Ultrasonic cavitation is used in various processes and applications, utilizing powerful shock waves and high-speed liquid jets generated by the collapsing bubbles. Typically, a single frequency source is used to produce the desired effects. However, optimization of the efficiency of ultrasound reactors is necessary to improve cavitation activity in specific applications such as for the exfoliation of two dimensional materials. This research takes the next step to investigate the effect of a dual frequency transducer system on the bubble dynamics, cavitation zone, pressure fields, acoustic spectra, and induced shock waves for four liquids with a range of physical properties. Using ultra-high-speed imaging and synchronized acoustic pressure measurements, the effect of ultrasonic dual frequencies on bubble dynamics was investigated. The addition of a high frequency transducer (1174 kHz) showed that the bubble fragments and satellite bubbles induced from a low frequency transducer (24 kHz) were able to extend their lifecycle and increase spatial distribution, thus, extending the boundaries of the cavitation zone. Furthermore, this combination of ultrasonic frequencies generated higher acoustic pressures (up to 180%) and enhanced the characteristic shock wave peak, indicating more bubble collapses and the generation of additional shock waves. The dual frequency system also enlarged the cavitation cloud size under the sonotrode. These observations specifically delineated the enhancement of cavitation activity using a dual frequency system pivotal for optimization of existing cavitation-based processing technologies.


Morton, J. A., Khavari, M., Priyadarshi, A., Kaur, A., Grobert, N., Mi, J., …Tzanakis, I. (2023). Dual frequency ultrasonic cavitation in various liquids: High-speed imaging and acoustic pressure measurements. Physics of Fluids, 35(1), Article 017135.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jan 7, 2023
Online Publication Date Jan 30, 2023
Publication Date Jan 1, 2023
Deposit Date Jun 26, 2024
Publicly Available Date Jun 27, 2024
Journal Physics of Fluids
Print ISSN 1070-6631
Electronic ISSN 1089-7666
Publisher American Institute of Physics
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 35
Issue 1
Article Number 017135
Keywords Ultrasound; Acoustical properties; Acoustic spectroscopy; Acoustic signal processing; Space instruments; Graphene; Ultra-high speed imaging; Fluid jets; Shock waves; Bubble dynamics
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