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Burden of injury along the development spectrum: associations between the Socio-demographic Index and disability-adjusted life year estimates from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017

Haagsma, Juanita A.; James, Spencer L.; Castle, Chris D.; Dingels, Zachary V.; Fox, Jack T.; Hamilton, Erin B.; Liu, Zichen; Lucchesi, Lydia R.; Roberts, Nicholas L.S.; Sylte, Dillon O.; Adebayo, Oladimeji M.; Ahmadi, Alireza; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir; Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine; Alahdab, Fares; Alghnam, Suliman A.; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa M.; Alsharif, Ubai; Altirkawi, Khalid; Anjomshoa, Mina; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Appiah, Seth Christopher Yaw; Aremu, Olatunde; Arora, Amit; Asayesh, Hamid; Assadi, Reza; Awasthi, Ashish; Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina Ayala; Balalla, Shivanthi; Banstola, Amrit; Barker-Collo, Suzanne Lyn; Bärnighausen, Till Winfried; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Bedi, Neeraj; Behzadifar, Masoud; Behzadifar, Meysam; Benjet, Corina; Bennett, Derrick A.; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Bhaumik, Soumyadeep; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Bijani, Ali; Borges, Guilherme; Borschmann, Rohan; Bose, Dipan; Boufous, Soufiane; Brazinova, Alexandra; Rincon, Julio Cesar Campuzano; Cárdena...


Juanita A. Haagsma

Spencer L. James

Chris D. Castle

Zachary V. Dingels

Jack T. Fox

Erin B. Hamilton

Zichen Liu

Lydia R. Lucchesi

Nicholas L.S. Roberts

Dillon O. Sylte

Oladimeji M. Adebayo

Alireza Ahmadi

Muktar Beshir Ahmed

Miloud Taki Eddine Aichour

Fares Alahdab

Suliman A. Alghnam

Syed Mohamed Aljunid

Rajaa M. Al-Raddadi

Ubai Alsharif

Khalid Altirkawi

Mina Anjomshoa

Carl Abelardo T. Antonio

Seth Christopher Yaw Appiah

Olatunde Aremu

Amit Arora

Hamid Asayesh

Reza Assadi

Ashish Awasthi

Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla

Shivanthi Balalla

Amrit Banstola

Suzanne Lyn Barker-Collo

Till Winfried Bärnighausen

Shahrzad Bazargan-Hejazi

Neeraj Bedi

Masoud Behzadifar

Meysam Behzadifar

Corina Benjet

Derrick A. Bennett

Isabela M. Bensenor

Soumyadeep Bhaumik

Zulfiqar A. Bhutta

Ali Bijani

Guilherme Borges

Rohan Borschmann

Dipan Bose

Soufiane Boufous

Alexandra Brazinova

Julio Cesar Campuzano Rincon

Rosario Cárdenas

Juan J. Carrero

Félix Carvalho

Carlos A. Castañeda-Orjuela

Ferrán Catalá-López

Jee Young J. Choi

Devasahayam J. Christopher

Christopher Stephen Crowe

Koustuv Dalal

Ahmad Daryani

Dragos Virgil Davitoiu

Louisa Degenhardt

Diego De Leo

Jan Walter De Neve

Kebede Deribe

Getenet Ayalew Dessie

Gabrielle Aline deVeber

Samath Dhamminda Dharmaratne

Linh Phuong Doan

Kate A. Dolan

Tim Robert Driscoll

Manisha Dubey

Ziad El-Khatib

Christian Lycke Ellingsen

Maysaa El Sayed Zaki

Aman Yesuf Endries

Sharareh Eskandarieh

Andre Faro

Seyed Mohammad Fereshtehnejad

Eduarda Fernandes

Irina Filip

Florian Fischer

Richard Charles Franklin

Takeshi Fukumoto

Kebede Embaye Gezae

Tiffany K. Gill

Alessandra C. Goulart

Ayman Grada

Yuming Guo

Rahul Gupta

Hassan Haghparast Bidgoli

Arvin Haj-Mirzaian

Arya Haj-Mirzaian

Randah R. Hamadeh

Samer Hamidi

Josep Maria Haro

Hadi Hassankhani

Hamid Yimam Hassen

Rasmus Havmoeller

Delia Hendrie

Andualem Henok


Background The epidemiological transition of non-communicable diseases replacing infectious diseases as the main contributors to disease burden has been well documented in global health literature. Less focus, however, has been given to the relationship between sociodemographic changes and injury. The aim of this study was to examine the association between disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) from injury for 195 countries and territories at different levels along the development spectrum between 1990 and 2017 based on the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 estimates. Methods Injury mortality was estimated using the GBD mortality database, corrections for garbage coding and CODEm-the cause of death ensemble modelling tool. Morbidity estimation was based on surveys and inpatient and outpatient data sets for 30 cause-of-injury with 47 nature-of-injury categories each. The Socio-demographic Index (SDI) is a composite indicator that includes lagged income per capita, average educational attainment over age 15 years and total fertility rate. results For many causes of injury, age-standardised DALY rates declined with increasing SDI, although road injury, interpersonal violence and self-harm did not follow this pattern. Particularly for self-harm opposing patterns were observed in regions with similar SDI levels. For road injuries, this effect was less pronounced. Conclusions The overall global pattern is that of declining injury burden with increasing SDI. However, not all injuries follow this pattern, which suggests multiple underlying mechanisms influencing injury DALYs. There is a need for a detailed understanding of these patterns to help to inform national and global efforts to address injury-related health outcomes across the development spectrum.


Haagsma, J. A., James, S. L., Castle, C. D., Dingels, Z. V., Fox, J. T., Hamilton, E. B., …Soyiri, I. (2020). Burden of injury along the development spectrum: associations between the Socio-demographic Index and disability-adjusted life year estimates from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Injury Prevention, 26(Suppl. 2), i12-i26.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Aug 12, 2019
Online Publication Date Jan 8, 2020
Publication Date Oct 1, 2020
Deposit Date Jun 20, 2024
Publicly Available Date Jul 3, 2024
Journal Injury Prevention
Print ISSN 1353-8047
Electronic ISSN 1475-5785
Publisher BMJ Publishing Group
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 26
Issue Suppl. 2
Pages i12-i26
Public URL


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© Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2020. Re-use permitted under CC BY. Published by BMJ.
This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported (CC BY 4.0) license, which permits others to copy, redistribute, remix, transform and build upon this work for any purpose, provided the original work is properly cited, a link to the licence is given, and indication of whether changes were made. See:

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