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Integrating Virtual Walkthroughs for Subjective Urban Evaluations: A Case Study of Neighbourhoods in Sheffield, England

Roychowdhury, Sneha; Mazumdar, Suvodeep; Thakker, Dhavalkumar; Checco, Alessandro; Lanfranchi, Vitaveska; Goodchild, Barry


Sneha Roychowdhury

Suvodeep Mazumdar

Alessandro Checco

Vitaveska Lanfranchi

Barry Goodchild


This study explores the correlation between residents’ subjective assessments of urban neighbourhoods, obtained through virtual walkthroughs, and objective measures of deprivation. Our study was set within a specific city in the United Kingdom, with neighbourhoods selected based on Indices of Multiple Deprivation (IMD). We invited residents in the UK through Prolific, a crowdsourcing platform. Employing complete case analysis, TF-IDF keyword extraction, the Kruskal–Wallis test, and Spearman’s rank-order correlation, our study examines the alignment between subjective assessments and existing deprivation measures (IMD). The results reveal a nuanced relationship, suggesting potential subjective biases influencing residents’ perceptions. Despite these complexities, the study highlights the value of virtual walkthroughs in offering a holistic overview of neighbourhoods. While acknowledging the limitations posed by subjective biases, we argue that virtual walkthroughs provide insights into residents’ experiences that potentially complement traditional objective measures of deprivation. By capturing the intricacies of residents’ perceptions, virtual walkthroughs contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of neighbourhood deprivation. This research informs future endeavours to integrate subjective assessments with objective measures for robust neighbourhood evaluations.


Roychowdhury, S., Mazumdar, S., Thakker, D., Checco, A., Lanfranchi, V., & Goodchild, B. (2024). Integrating Virtual Walkthroughs for Subjective Urban Evaluations: A Case Study of Neighbourhoods in Sheffield, England. Land, 13(6), Article 831.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jun 4, 2024
Online Publication Date Jun 11, 2024
Publication Date Jun 1, 2024
Deposit Date Jul 2, 2024
Publicly Available Date Jul 2, 2024
Journal Land
Print ISSN 2073-445X
Publisher MDPI
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 13
Issue 6
Article Number 831
Keywords Virtual walkthroughs; Index of Multiple Deprivation; Citizen perception; Built environment; Subjective assessment
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