This chapter considers the law of the sea and the regulation of fisheries in the North Atlantic from 1850 onwards. However, in order to provide a more coherent legal perspective, slightly broader chronological and geographic considerations are required. Some brief observations on key developments prior to 1850 help to contextualise and explain the state of the law in the modern era. A broader geographic focus is necessary because the international law of the sea is not limited to the North Atlantic and is intended to establish rules of global application. As such, reference to global developments show what the law is, and how particular rules operative in the North Atlantic have been influenced by wider legal developments.