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Modelling and neutron diffraction characterization of the interfacial bonding of spray formed dissimilar steels

Lee, T. L.; Mi, J.; Ren, S.; Zhao, S.; Fan, J.; Kabra, S.; Zhang, S.; Grant, P. S.


T. L. Lee

S. Ren

S. Zhao

J. Fan

S. Kabra

S. Zhang

P. S. Grant


The spray forming of thick, dissimilar steel clad tubes with the objective of achieving a high integrity metallurgical bond across the cladding-substrate interface able to withstand residual stresses and subsequent thermo-mechanical processing was investigated by large scale experiments, modelling and extensive microstructural characterization including microscopy, X-ray tomography, neutron scattering and mechanical testing. The simulated residual stress distributions across the cladding-substrate interface, accounting for any as-sprayed porosity and the distribution of martensitic and retained austenite phases, were compared with neutron diffraction measurements and differences used to infer the load transfer behaviour and thus the mechanical integrity of the interface. The mechanical properties of the interfaces were then also measured directly by shear testing. The link between substrate pre-heating, the spray forming temperature, and the resulting preform temperature, porosity, phase fractions, residual stress, strength and integrity of the interface were established and quantified explicitly.


Lee, T. L., Mi, J., Ren, S., Zhao, S., Fan, J., Kabra, S., …Grant, P. S. (2018). Modelling and neutron diffraction characterization of the interfacial bonding of spray formed dissimilar steels. Acta Materialia, 155, 318-330.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date May 23, 2018
Online Publication Date May 26, 2018
Publication Date Aug 15, 2018
Deposit Date Jan 25, 2021
Publicly Available Date Jan 25, 2021
Journal Acta Materialia
Print ISSN 1359-6454
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 155
Pages 318-330
Keywords Finite element modelling; Neutron diffraction; Spray forming; Residual stresses; Dissimilar steels
Public URL
Publisher URL


Simulation Video Spraying Heat Flow Stress (5 Mb)

Copyright Statement
© The Authors 2017.

Published article (5.2 Mb)

Copyright Statement
©2018 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY licence.

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