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Use of the enhanced frog embryo teratogenesis assay-Xenopus (FETAX) to determine chemically-induced phenotypic effects

Hu, Lingling; Zhu, Jingmin; Rotchell, Jeanette M.; Wu, Lijiao; Gao, Jinjuan; Shi, Huahong

Authors

Lingling Hu

Jingmin Zhu

Lijiao Wu

Jinjuan Gao

Huahong Shi



Abstract

The frog embryo teratogenesis assay-Xenopus (FETAX) is an established method for the evaluation of the developmental toxicities of chemicals. To develop an enhanced FETAX that is appropriate for common environmental contaminants, we exposed Xenopus tropicalis embryos to eight compounds, including tributyltin, triphenyltin, CdCl2, pyraclostrobin, picoxystrobin, coumoxystrobin, all-trans-retinoic acid and 9-cis-retinoic acid. Multiple malformations were induced in embryos particularly following exposure to tributyltin, triphenyltin and pyraclostrobin at environmentally relevant concentrations. Based on the range of observed malformations, we proposed a phenotypic assessment method with 20 phenotypes and a 0–5 scoring system. This derived index exhibited concentration-dependent relationships for all of the chemicals tested. Furthermore, the phenotype profiles were characteristic of the different tested chemicals. Our results indicate that malformation phenotypes can be quantitatively integrated with the primary endpoints in conventional FETAX assessments to allow for increased sensitivity and measurement of quantitative effects and to provide indicative mechanistic information for each tested chemical.

Journal Article Type Article
Publication Date Mar 1, 2015
Journal Science of The Total Environment
Print ISSN 0048-9697
Electronic ISSN 1879-1026
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 508
Pages 258-265
Institution Citation Hu, L., Zhu, J., Rotchell, J. M., Wu, L., Gao, J., & Shi, H. (2015). Use of the enhanced frog embryo teratogenesis assay-Xenopus (FETAX) to determine chemically-induced phenotypic effects. The Science of the total environment, 508, 258-265. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.11.086
DOI https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.11.086
Keywords FETAX; Phenotypic alterations; Embryo; Teratogenicity; Developmental toxicity; Pollutants
Publisher URL https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969714016805?via%3Dihub
Additional Information This article is maintained by: Elsevier; Article Title: Use of the enhanced frog embryo teratogenesis assay-Xenopus (FETAX) to determine chemically-induced phenotypic effects; Journal Title: Science of The Total Environment; CrossRef DOI link to publisher maintained version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.11.086; Content Type: article; Copyright: Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.