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Why do humans have chins? Testing the mechanical significance of modern human symphyseal morphology with finite element analysis (2010)
Journal Article
Gröning, F., Liu, J., Fagan, M. J., & O'Higgins, P. (2011). Why do humans have chins? Testing the mechanical significance of modern human symphyseal morphology with finite element analysis. American journal of physical anthropology, 144(4), 593-606. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.21447

The modern human mandibular symphysis differs from those of all other primates in being vertically orientated and possessing a chin, but the functional significance of this unique morphology is not well understood. Some hypotheses propose that it is... Read More about Why do humans have chins? Testing the mechanical significance of modern human symphyseal morphology with finite element analysis.

Combining geometric morphometrics and functional simulation: an emerging toolkit for virtual functional analyses (2010)
Journal Article
O'Higgins, P., Cobb, S. N., Fitton, L. C., Gröning, F., Phillips, R., Liu, J., & Fagan, M. J. (2011). Combining geometric morphometrics and functional simulation: an emerging toolkit for virtual functional analyses. Journal of anatomy, 218(1), 3-15. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7580.2010.01301.x

The development of virtual methods for anatomical reconstruction and functional simulation of skeletal structures offers great promise in evolutionary and ontogenetic investigations of form-function relationships. Key developments reviewed here inclu... Read More about Combining geometric morphometrics and functional simulation: an emerging toolkit for virtual functional analyses.