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Single-Step extraction-esterification process to produce Biodiesel from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) using microwave heating: a circular economy approach to making use of a difficult waste product. (2020)
Journal Article
Davies, E., Deutz, P., & Zein, S. H. (in press). Single-Step extraction-esterification process to produce Biodiesel from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) using microwave heating: a circular economy approach to making use of a difficult waste product. Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13399-020-00856-1

This investigation explores single step biodiesel synthesis using Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) as a feedstock. Normally considered a waste product from the extraction process of palm oil, POME treatment is difficult and can cause significant environ... Read More about Single-Step extraction-esterification process to produce Biodiesel from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) using microwave heating: a circular economy approach to making use of a difficult waste product..

Optimization of pH as a strategy to improve enzymatic saccharification of wheat straw for enhancing bioethanol production (2020)
Journal Article
Abdulsattar, M. O., Abdulsattar, J. O., Greenway, G. M., Welham, K. J., Abdulsattar, M., Abdulsattar, J., …Zein, S. H. (2020). Optimization of pH as a strategy to improve enzymatic saccharification of wheat straw for enhancing bioethanol production. Journal of Analytical Science and Technology, 11(1), https://doi.org/10.1186/s40543-020-00217-7

In this work, wheat straw (WS) was used as a lignocellulosic substrate to investigate the influence of pH on enzymatic saccharification. The optimum enzymatic hydrolysis occurred at pH range 5.8 – 6.0, instead of 4.8 - 5.0 as has been widely reported... Read More about Optimization of pH as a strategy to improve enzymatic saccharification of wheat straw for enhancing bioethanol production.

An innovative method of extraction of coffee oil using an advanced microwave system: in comparison with conventional Soxhlet extraction method (2019)
Journal Article
Hibbert, S., Welham, K., & Zein, S. (2019). An innovative method of extraction of coffee oil using an advanced microwave system: in comparison with conventional Soxhlet extraction method. SN applied sciences, 1(11), https://doi.org/10.1007/s42452-019-1457-5

The production of energy and chemicals from waste biomass is an attractive alternative by comparison with first generation biofuels and fossil feedstocks. This paper investigates oil extraction from spent coffee grounds (SCG) by means of an advanced... Read More about An innovative method of extraction of coffee oil using an advanced microwave system: in comparison with conventional Soxhlet extraction method.

Wheat Straw Bio-refining. Part I: Optimization of the Microwave Radiation Process with Sulphuric Acid Pre-treatment (2017)
Journal Article
Demirhan, H., Fauzi, A., Skoulou, V. . K., Haywood, S. . . H., & Zein, S. . . H. (2017). Wheat Straw Bio-refining. Part I: Optimization of the Microwave Radiation Process with Sulphuric Acid Pre-treatment. Current Microwave Chemistry, 4(3), https://doi.org/10.2174/2213335604666170719113659

Background: This study investigates the microwave-assisted acid extraction of lignin from wheat straw. Methods: Two experimental design methods, the Central Composite Design (CCD) and the Response Surface Method (RSM) methods were used to select c... Read More about Wheat Straw Bio-refining. Part I: Optimization of the Microwave Radiation Process with Sulphuric Acid Pre-treatment.

Effect of ions in ionic liquids on the characteristics of cellulose from coconut husk fibres (2016)
Journal Article
Reh, N. A., Zakaria, R., & Zein, S. H. (2016). Effect of ions in ionic liquids on the characteristics of cellulose from coconut husk fibres. International journal of biomedical engineering and technology, 21(1), 80-94. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJBET.2016.076734

This paper reports the properties of cellulose nanowhiskers as new potential biomaterials. Cellulose nanowhiskers were produced from coconut husk fibres using four different anions of ionic liquids: 1-butyl-3-mehtylimidzalium chloride, 1-butyl-3-meht... Read More about Effect of ions in ionic liquids on the characteristics of cellulose from coconut husk fibres.

Influence of solvent exchange time on mixed matrix membrane separation performance for CO2/N2and a kinetic sorption study (2014)
Journal Article
Jawad, Z. A., Ahmad, A. L., Low, S. C., Chew, T. L., & Zein, S. H. (2015). Influence of solvent exchange time on mixed matrix membrane separation performance for CO2/N2and a kinetic sorption study. Journal of membrane science, 476, 590-601. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.memsci.2014.11.008

Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is the largest contributor of greenhouse gas emissions. Mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) have recently received attention as an attractive candidate for membrane-based separation, for which MMMs can serve as an alternative to conv... Read More about Influence of solvent exchange time on mixed matrix membrane separation performance for CO2/N2and a kinetic sorption study.

A cellulose acetate/multi-walled carbon nanotube mixed matrix membrane for CO2/N2separation (2013)
Journal Article
Ahmad, A. L., Jawad, Z. A., Low, S. C., & Zein, S. H. (2014). A cellulose acetate/multi-walled carbon nanotube mixed matrix membrane for CO2/N2separation. Journal of membrane science, 451, 55-66. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.memsci.2013.09.043

Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions have been rising indiscriminately and are becoming a major contributor to Earth's greenhouse effect. One of the most promising means of separating the hazardous CO 2 gas is to develop a cost effective and high-perform... Read More about A cellulose acetate/multi-walled carbon nanotube mixed matrix membrane for CO2/N2separation.

Comparison of the pervaporation performance of various types of carbon nanotube-based nanocomposites in the dehydration of acetone (2013)
Journal Article
Yeang, Q. W., Zein, S. H. S., Sulong, A. B., & Tan, S. H. (2013). Comparison of the pervaporation performance of various types of carbon nanotube-based nanocomposites in the dehydration of acetone. Separation and purification technology, 107, 252-263. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2013.01.031

The present work focuses on the functionalisation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) in order to improve the compatibility and dispersion of MWCNTs in a chitosan (CS) matrix. The resultant PVA-MWCNT/CS nanocompos... Read More about Comparison of the pervaporation performance of various types of carbon nanotube-based nanocomposites in the dehydration of acetone.

Cytocompatibility, bioactivity and mechanical strength of calcium phosphate cement reinforced with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and bovine serum albumin (2012)
Journal Article
Gholami, F., Zein, S. H. S., Gerhardt, L. C., Low, K. L., Tan, S. H., McPhail, D. S., …Boccaccini, A. R. (2013). Cytocompatibility, bioactivity and mechanical strength of calcium phosphate cement reinforced with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and bovine serum albumin. Ceramics international, 39(5), 4975-4983. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ceramint.2012.11.094

This paper reports on the in vitro cytotoxicity, bioactivity behaviour and mechanical properties of novel injectable calcium phosphate cement filled with hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes and bovine serum albumin (CPC/MWCNT-OH/BSA). To predi... Read More about Cytocompatibility, bioactivity and mechanical strength of calcium phosphate cement reinforced with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and bovine serum albumin.

The electrochemical studies of the corrosion resistance behaviour of hydroxyapatite coatings on stainless steel fabricated by electrophoretic deposition (2012)
Journal Article
Chew, K. K., Zein, S. H. S., Ahmad, A. L., McPhail, D. S., & Abdullah, M. F. (2013). The electrochemical studies of the corrosion resistance behaviour of hydroxyapatite coatings on stainless steel fabricated by electrophoretic deposition. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 19(4), 1123-1129. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiec.2012.12.008

HA was coated on stainless steel (SS) 316L by using electrophoretic deposition to impart corrosion resistance upon SS 316L. Consequently, corrosion behaviour of HA coated SS 316L deposited from applied voltages 10. V to 60. V (denoted as HA/SS316L-10... Read More about The electrochemical studies of the corrosion resistance behaviour of hydroxyapatite coatings on stainless steel fabricated by electrophoretic deposition.

Optimization of the mechanical properties of calcium phosphate/multi-walled carbon nanotubes/bovine serum albumin composites using response surface methodology (2011)
Journal Article
Low, K. L., Tan, S. H., Zein, S. H. S., McPhail, D. S., & Boccaccini, A. R. (2011). Optimization of the mechanical properties of calcium phosphate/multi-walled carbon nanotubes/bovine serum albumin composites using response surface methodology. Materials and Design, 32(6), 3312-3319. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2011.02.022

Response surface methodology (RSM) coupled with the central composite design (CCD) was used to optimize the mechanical properties of calcium phosphate cement/multi-walled carbon nanotubes/bovine serum albumin (CPC/MWCNTs/BSA) composites. In this stud... Read More about Optimization of the mechanical properties of calcium phosphate/multi-walled carbon nanotubes/bovine serum albumin composites using response surface methodology.

Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)-functionalised multi-walled carbon nanotubes/chitosan green nanocomposite membranes and their application in pervaporation (2010)
Journal Article
Ong, Y. T., Ahmad, A. L., Zein, S. H. S., Sudesh, K., & Tan, S. H. (2011). Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)-functionalised multi-walled carbon nanotubes/chitosan green nanocomposite membranes and their application in pervaporation. Separation and purification technology, 76(3), 419-427. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2010.11.013

The aim of this research was to align poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB)-functionalised multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) into a chitosan matrix. The MWCNTs were first functionalised with PHB and aligned into a membrane filter template through a filt... Read More about Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)-functionalised multi-walled carbon nanotubes/chitosan green nanocomposite membranes and their application in pervaporation.

The effect of reduction temperature on Co-Mo/Al2O3catalysts for carbon nanotubes formation (2007)
Journal Article
Chai, S. P., Zein, S. H. S., & Mohamed, A. R. (2007). The effect of reduction temperature on Co-Mo/Al2O3catalysts for carbon nanotubes formation. Applied catalysis. A, General, 326(2), 173-179. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcata.2007.04.020

Catalyst reduction temperature was observed to affect the yield and diameter uniformity of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) produced on Co-Mo/Al 2 O 3 catalysts. The results show that on the whole, the reduced catalysts gave higher carbon yield. The CNTs obta... Read More about The effect of reduction temperature on Co-Mo/Al2O3catalysts for carbon nanotubes formation.

Synthesis of manganese oxide/carbon nanotube nanocomposites using wet chemical method (2007)
Journal Article
Zein, S. H. S., Yeoh, L. C., Chai, S. P., Mohamed, A. R., & Mahayuddin, M. E. M. (2007). Synthesis of manganese oxide/carbon nanotube nanocomposites using wet chemical method. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 190(1-3), 402-405. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2007.03.104

Novel material with peculiar properties can be obtained by introducing foreign materials into the inner cavity of carbon nanotubes. It has been suggested that the materials encapsulated into the hollow regions of carbon nanotubes could result in a si... Read More about Synthesis of manganese oxide/carbon nanotube nanocomposites using wet chemical method.

Synthesizing carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers over supported-nickel oxide catalysts via catalytic decomposition of methane (2007)
Journal Article
Chai, S. P., Zein, S. H. S., & Mohamed, A. R. (2007). Synthesizing carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers over supported-nickel oxide catalysts via catalytic decomposition of methane. Diamond and related materials, 16(8), 1656-1664. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diamond.2007.02.011

Supported-NiO catalysts were tested in the synthesis of carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers by catalytic decomposition of methane at 550 °C and 700 °C. Catalytic activity was characterized by the conversion levels of methane and the amount of carb... Read More about Synthesizing carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers over supported-nickel oxide catalysts via catalytic decomposition of methane.

Study of hydrogen storage by carbonaceous material at room temperature (2007)
Journal Article
Hassan, N. H. A., Mohamed, A. R., & Zein, S. H. S. (2007). Study of hydrogen storage by carbonaceous material at room temperature. Diamond and related materials, 16(8), 1517-1523. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diamond.2006.12.042

Recently, many studies have been reported about a variety of carbon materials in adsorbing hydrogen. Regarding that, hydrogen adsorption in different carbonaceous materials was investigated at room temperature, 298 K and three different pressures whi... Read More about Study of hydrogen storage by carbonaceous material at room temperature.

Production of High Purity Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes from Catalytic Decomposition of Methane (2006)
Journal Article
Hong, K. B., Ismail, A. A. B., Mahayuddin, M. E. B. M., Mohamed, A. R., & Zein, S. H. S. (2006). Production of High Purity Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes from Catalytic Decomposition of Methane. Journal of natural gas chemistry / Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15(4), 266-270. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1003-9953%2807%2960004-8

Acid-based purification process of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) produced via catalytic decomposition of methane with NiO/TiO 2 as a catalyst is described. By combining the oxidation in air and the acid refluxes, the impurities, such as amorp... Read More about Production of High Purity Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes from Catalytic Decomposition of Methane.

COx-Free Hydrogen and Carbon Nanofibers Produced from Direct Decomposition of Methane on Nickel-Based Catalysts (2006)
Journal Article
Chai, S. P., Zein, S. H. S., & Mohamed, A. R. (2006). COx-Free Hydrogen and Carbon Nanofibers Produced from Direct Decomposition of Methane on Nickel-Based Catalysts. Journal of natural gas chemistry / Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15(4), 253-258. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1003-9953%2807%2960002-4

Direct decomposition of methane was carried out using a fixed-bed reactor at 700 °C for the production of CO x -free hydrogen and carbon nanofibers. The catalytic performance of NiO-M/SiO 2 catalysts (where M=AgO, CoO, CuO, FeO, MnO x and MoO) in met... Read More about COx-Free Hydrogen and Carbon Nanofibers Produced from Direct Decomposition of Methane on Nickel-Based Catalysts.

Moderate temperature synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes on alumina supported nickel oxide catalyst (2006)
Journal Article
Chai, S. P., Zein, S. H. S., & Mohamed, A. R. (2007). Moderate temperature synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes on alumina supported nickel oxide catalyst. Materials letters, 61(16), 3519-3521. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matlet.2006.11.108

A simple nickel oxide catalyst has been developed in synthesizing single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) at moderate temperature. The catalyst used in the experiment was without a preceding reduction in hydrogen flow. The synthesis of SWNTs was perfo... Read More about Moderate temperature synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes on alumina supported nickel oxide catalyst.

Formation of Y-junction carbon nanotubes by catalytic CVD of methane (2006)
Journal Article
Chai, S. P., Zein, S. H. S., & Mohamed, A. R. (2006). Formation of Y-junction carbon nanotubes by catalytic CVD of methane. Solid state communications, 140(5), 248-250. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssc.2006.08.006

Y-junction carbon nanotubes were grown by catalytic CVD of methane at 700 {ring operator} C on NiO-CuO-MoO(7:2:1) (w/w/w)/SiO 2 catalyst. For comparison, NiO-CuO(8:2) (w/w)/SiO 2 and NiO-MoO(8:2) (w/w)/SiO 2 catalysts were tested for carbon nanotube... Read More about Formation of Y-junction carbon nanotubes by catalytic CVD of methane.


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