Skip to main content

Research Repository

Advanced Search

A box particle filter method for tracking multiple extended objects

De Freitas, Allan; Mihaylova, Lyudmila; Gning, Amadou; Schikora, Marek; Ulmke, Martin; Angelova, Donka; Koch, Wolfgang


Allan De Freitas

Lyudmila Mihaylova

Amadou Gning

Marek Schikora

Martin Ulmke

Donka Angelova

Wolfgang Koch


Extended objects generate a variable number of multiple measurements. In contrast with point targets, extended objects are characterized with their size or volume, and orientation. Multiple object tracking is a notoriously challenging problem due to complexities caused by data association. This paper develops a box particle filter method for multiple extended object tracking, and for the first time it is shown how interval based approaches can deal efficiently with data association problems and reduce the computational complexity of the data association. The box particle filter relies on the concept of a box particle. A box particle represents a random sample and occupies a controllable rectangular region of non-zero volume in the object state space. A theoretical proof of the generalized likelihood of the box particle filter for multiple extended objects is given based on a binomial expansion. Next the performance of the box particle filter is evaluated using a challenging experiment with the appearance and disappearance of objects within the area of interest, with real laser rangefinder data. The box particle filter is compared with a state-of-the-art particle filter with point particles. Accurate and robust estimates are obtained with the box particle filter, both for the kinematic states and extent parameters, with significant reductions in computational complexity. The box particle filter reduction of computational time is at least 32% compared with the particle filter working with point particles for the experiment presented. Another advantage of the box particle filter is its robustness to initialization uncertainty


De Freitas, A., Mihaylova, L., Gning, A., Schikora, M., Ulmke, M., Angelova, D., & Koch, W. (2019). A box particle filter method for tracking multiple extended objects. IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, 55(4), 1640 - 1655.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Aug 24, 2018
Online Publication Date Oct 4, 2018
Publication Date 2019-08
Deposit Date Oct 5, 2018
Publicly Available Date Oct 8, 2018
Journal IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems
Print ISSN 0018-9251
Electronic ISSN 1557-9603
Publisher Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 55
Issue 4
Pages 1640 - 1655
Keywords Electrical and Electronic Engineering; Aerospace Engineering
Public URL
Publisher URL


Article (580 Kb)

Copyright Statement
© 2018 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works.

You might also like

Downloadable Citations