Virtual reality crowd simulation: effects of agent density on user experience and behaviour
Dickinson, Patrick; Gerling, Kathrin; Hicks, Kieran; Murray, John; Shearer, John; Greenwood, Jacob
Professor John Murray John.Murray@hull.ac.uk
Professor of Robotics and Autonomous Systems
Agent-based crowd simulations are used for modelling building and space usage, allowing designers to explore hypothetical real-world scenarios, including extraordinary events such as evacuations. Existing work which engages virtual reality (VR) as a platform for crowd simulations has been primarily focussed on the validation of simulation models through observation; the use of interactions such as gaze to enhance a sense of immersion; or studies of proxemics. In this work, we extend previous studies of proxemics and examine the effects of varying crowd density on user experience and behaviour. We have created a simulation in which participants walk freely and perform a routine manual task, whilst interacting with agents controlled by a typical social force simulation model. We examine and report the effects of crowd density on both affective state and behaviour. Our results show a significant increase in negative affect with density, measured using a self-report scale. We further show significant differences in some aspects of user behaviours, using video analysis, and discuss how our results relate to VR simulation design for mixed human–agent scenarios.
|Journal Article Type||Article|
|Peer Reviewed||Peer Reviewed|
|APA6 Citation||Dickinson, P., Gerling, K., Hicks, K., Murray, J., Shearer, J., & Greenwood, J. (2019). Virtual reality crowd simulation: effects of agent density on user experience and behaviour. Virtualreality : the journal of the Virtual Reality Society, 23(1), 19-32. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10055-018-0365-0|
|Keywords||Human-Computer Interaction; Software; Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design; Crowd stimulation; User experience; Agent density|
© The Author(s) 2018
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
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