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Constraining gas motions in the intra-cluster medium

Simionescu, Aurora; ZuHone, John; Zhuravleva, Irina; Churazov, Eugene; Gaspari, Massimo; Nagai, Daisuke; Werner, Norbert; Roediger, Elke; Canning, Rebecca; Eckert, Dominique; Gu, Liyi; Paerels, Frits


The detailed velocity structure of the diffuse X-ray emitting intra-cluster medium (ICM) remains one of the last missing key ingredients in understanding the microphysical properties of these hot baryons and constraining our models of the growth and evolution of structure on the largest scales in the Universe. Direct measurements of the gas velocities from the widths and shifts of X-ray emission lines were recently provided for the central region of the Perseus Cluster of galaxies by Hitomi, and upcoming high-resolution X-ray microcalorimeters onboard XRISM and Athena are expected to extend these studies to many more systems. In the mean time, several other direct and indirect methods have been proposed for estimating the velocity structure in the ICM, ranging from resonant scattering to X-ray surface brightness fluctuation analysis, the kinematic Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect, or using optical line emitting nebulae in the brightest cluster galaxies as tracers of the motions of the ambient plasma. Here, we review and compare the existing estimates of the velocities of the hot baryons, as well as the various overlapping physical processes that drive motions in the ICM, and discuss the implications of these measurements for constraining the viscosity and identifying the source of turbulence in clusters of galaxies.

Journal Article Type Article
Publication Date 2019-02
Journal Space Science Reviews
Print ISSN 1572-9672
Publisher Springer Verlag
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 215
Article Number 24
Keywords Clusters of galaxies; Intracluster medium; X-ray spectroscopy; Large-scale structure
Publisher URL