Skip to main content

Research Repository

Advanced Search

Innovative organotypic in vitro models for safety assessment: aligning with regulatory requirements and understanding models of the heart, skin, and liver as paradigms

Pridgeon, Chris S.; Schlott, Constanze; Wong, Min Wei; Heringa, Minne B.; Heckel, Tobias; Leedale, Joe; Launay, Laurence; Gryshkova, Vitalina; Przyborski, Stefan; Bearon, Rachel N.; Wilkinson, Emma L.; Ansari, Tahera; Greenman, John; Hendriks, Delilah F. G.; Gibbs, Sue; Sidaway, James; Sison-Young, Rowena L.; Walker, Paul; Cross, Mike J.; Park, B. Kevin; Goldring, Chris E. P.


Chris S. Pridgeon

Constanze Schlott

Min Wei Wong

Minne B. Heringa

Tobias Heckel

Joe Leedale

Laurence Launay

Vitalina Gryshkova

Stefan Przyborski

Rachel N. Bearon

Emma L. Wilkinson

Tahera Ansari

Delilah F. G. Hendriks

Sue Gibbs

James Sidaway

Rowena L. Sison-Young

Paul Walker

Mike J. Cross

B. Kevin Park

Chris E. P. Goldring


The development of improved, innovative models for the detection of toxicity of drugs, chemicals, or chemicals in cosmetics is crucial to efficiently bring new products safely to market in a cost-effective and timely manner. In addition, improvement in models to detect toxicity may reduce the incidence of unexpected post-marketing toxicity and reduce or eliminate the need for animal testing. The safety of novel products of the pharmaceutical, chemical, or cosmetics industry must be assured; therefore, toxicological properties need to be assessed. Accepted methods for gathering the information required by law for approval of substances are often animal methods. To reduce, refine, and replace animal testing, innovative organotypic in vitro models have emerged. Such models appear at different levels of complexity ranging from simpler, self-organized three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures up to more advanced scaffold-based co-cultures consisting of multiple cell types. This review provides an overview of recent developments in the field of toxicity testing with in vitro models for three major organ types: heart, skin, and liver. This review also examines regulatory aspects of such models in Europe and the UK, and summarizes best practices to facilitate the acceptance and appropriate use of advanced in vitro models.


Pridgeon, C. S., Schlott, C., Wong, M. W., Heringa, M. B., Heckel, T., Leedale, J., …Goldring, C. E. P. (2018). Innovative organotypic in vitro models for safety assessment: aligning with regulatory requirements and understanding models of the heart, skin, and liver as paradigms. Archives of Toxicology, 92(2), 557-569.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Nov 27, 2017
Online Publication Date Jan 23, 2018
Publication Date 2018-02
Deposit Date Apr 9, 2019
Publicly Available Date Apr 10, 2019
Journal Archives of Toxicology
Print ISSN 0340-5761
Electronic ISSN 1432-0738
Publisher Springer (part of Springer Nature)
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 92
Issue 2
Pages 557-569
Keywords 3D in vitro models; Heart; Skin; Liver
Public URL
Publisher URL


Published article (2.2 Mb)

Publisher Licence URL

Copyright Statement
© The Author(s) 2018
Open Access
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

You might also like

Downloadable Citations