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Global, regional, and national burden of neurological disorders, 1990–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016

Feigin, Valery L; Nichols, Emma; Alam, Tahiya; Bannick, Marlena S; Beghi, Ettore; Blake, Natacha; Culpepper, William J; Dorsey, E Ray; Elbaz, Alexis; Ellenbogen, Richard G; Fisher, James L; Fitzmaurice, Christina; Giussani, Giorgia; Glennie, Linda; James, Spencer L; Johnson, Catherine Owens; Kassebaum, Nicholas J; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Marin, Benoît; Mountjoy-Venning, W Cliff; Nguyen, Minh; Ofori-Asenso, Richard; Patel, Anoop P; Piccininni, Marco; Roth, Gregory A; Steiner, Timothy J; Stovner, Lars Jacob; Szoeke, Cassandra E I; Theadom, Alice; Vollset, Stein Emil; Wallin, Mitchell Taylor; Wright, Claire; Zunt, Joseph Raymond; Abbasi, Nooshin; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abdelalim, Ahmed; Abdollahpour, Ibrahim; Aboyans, Victor; Abraha, Haftom Niguse; Acharya, Dilaram; Adamu, Abdu A; Adebayo, Oladimeji M; Adeoye, Abiodun Moshood; Adsuar, Jose C; Afarideh, Mohsen; Agrawal, Sutapa; Ahmadi, Alireza; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir; Aichour, Amani Nidhal; Aichour, Ibtihel; Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine; Akinyemi, Rufus Olusola; Akseer, Nadia; Al-Eyadhy, Ayman; Al-Shahi Salman, Rustam; Alahdab, Fares; Alene, Kefyalew Addis; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed; Altirkawi, Khalid; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Anber, Nahla Hamed; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T; Arabloo, Jalal; Aremu, Olatunde; Ärnlöv, Johan; Asayesh, Hamid; Asghar, Rana Jawad; Atalay, Hagos Tasew; Awasthi, Ashish; Ayala Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina; Ayuk, Tambe B; Badawi, Alaa; Banach, Maciej; Banoub, Joseph Adel Mattar; Barboza, Miguel A; Barker-Collo, Suzanne Lyn; Bärnighausen, Till Winfried; Baune, Bernhard T; Bedi, Neeraj; Behzadifar, Masoud; Behzadifar, Meysam; Béjot, Yannick; Bekele, Bayu Begashaw; Belachew, Abate Bekele; Bennett, Derrick A; Bensenor, Isabela M; Berhane, Adugnaw; Beuran, Mircea; Bhattacharyya, Krittika; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Biadgo, Belete; Bijani, Ali; Bililign, Nigus; Bin Sayeed, Muhammad Shahdaat; Blazes, Christopher Kynrint; Brayne, Carol; Butt, Zahid A; Campos-Nonato, Ismael R; Cantu-Brito, Carlos; Car, Mate; Cárdenas, Rosario; Carrero, Juan J; Carvalho, Félix; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos A; Castro, Franz; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Cerin, Ester; Chaiah, Yazan; Chang, Jung-Chen; Chatziralli, Irini; Chiang, Peggy Pei-Chia; Christensen, Hanne; Christopher, Devasahayam J; Cooper, Cyrus; Cortesi, Paolo Angelo; Costa, Vera M; Criqui, Michael H; Crowe, Christopher Stephen; Damasceno, Albertino Antonio Moura; Daryani, Ahmad; De la Cruz-Góngora, Vanessa; De la Hoz, Fernando Pio; De Leo, Diego; Demoz, Gebre Teklemariam; Deribe, Kebede; Dharmaratne, Samath Dhamminda; Diaz, Daniel; Dinberu, Mesfin Tadese; Djalalinia, Shirin; Doku, David Teye; Dubey, Manisha; Dubljanin, Eleonora; Duken, Eyasu Ejeta; Edvardsson, David; El-Khatib, Ziad; Endres, Matthias; Endries, Aman Yesuf; Eskandarieh, Sharareh; Esteghamati, Alireza; Esteghamati, Sadaf; Farhadi, Farzaneh; Faro, Andre; Farzadfar, Farshad; Farzaei, Mohammad Hosein; Fatima, Batool; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fernandes, Eduarda; Feyissa, Garumma Tolu; Filip, Irina; Fischer, Florian; Fukumoto, Takeshi; Ganji, Morsaleh; Gankpe, Fortune Gbetoho; Garcia-Gordillo, Miguel A; Gebre, Abadi Kahsu; Gebremichael, Teklu Gebrehiwo; Gelaw, Belayneh K; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Geremew, Demeke; Gezae, Kebede Embaye; Ghasemi-Kasman, Maryam; Gidey, Mahari Y; Gill, Paramjit Singh; Gill, Tiffany K; Girma, Efrata Tufa; Gnedovskaya, Elena V; Goulart, Alessandra C; Grada, Ayman; Grosso, Giuseppe; Guo, Yuming; Gupta, Rahul; Gupta, Rajeev; Haagsma, Juanita A; Hagos, Tekleberhan B; Haj-Mirzaian, Arvin; Haj-Mirzaian, Arya; Hamadeh, Randah R; Hamidi, Samer; Hankey, Graeme J; Hao, Yuantao; Haro, Josep Maria; Hassankhani, Hadi; Hassen, Hamid Yimam; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hay, Simon I; Hegazy, Mohamed I; Heidari, Behnam; Henok, Andualem; Heydarpour, Fatemeh; Hoang, Chi Linh; Hole, Michael K; Homaie Rad, Enayatollah; Hosseini, Seyed Mostafa; Hu, Guoqing; Igumbor, Ehimario U; Ilesanmi, Olayinka Stephen; Irvani, Seyed Sina Naghibi; Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful; Jakovljevic, Mihajlo; Javanbakht, Mehdi; Jha, Ravi Prakash; Jobanputra, Yash B; Jonas, Jost B; Jozwiak, Jacek Jerzy; Jürisson, Mikk; Kahsay, Amaha; Kalani, Rizwan; Kalkonde, Yogeshwar; Kamil, Teshome Abegaz; Kanchan, Tanuj; Karami, Manoochehr; Karch, André; Karimi, Narges; Kasaeian, Amir; Kassa, Tesfaye Dessale; Kassa, Zemenu Yohannes; Kaul, Anil; Kefale, Adane Teshome; Keiyoro, Peter Njenga; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khafaie, Morteza Abdullatif; Khalil, Ibrahim A; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khang, Young-Ho; Khazaie, Habibolah; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar A; Kiirithio, Daniel N; Kim, Anthony S; Kim, Daniel; Kim, Young-Eun; Kim, Yun Jin; Kisa, Adnan; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Koyanagi, Ai; Krishnamurthi, Rita V; Kuate Defo, Barthelemy; Kucuk Bicer, Burcu; Kumar, Manasi; Lacey, Ben; Lafranconi, Alessandra; Lansingh, Van C; Latifi, Arman; Leshargie, Cheru Tesema; Li, Shanshan; Liao, Yu; Linn, Shai; Lo, Warren David; Lopez, Jaifred Christian F; Lorkowski, Stefan; Lotufo, Paulo A; Lucas, Robyn M; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Mackay, Mark T; Mahotra, Narayan Bahadur; Majdan, Marek; Majdzadeh, Reza; Majeed, Azeem; Malekzadeh, Reza; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Manafi, Navid; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Mantovani, Lorenzo Giovanni; März, Winfried; Mashamba-Thompson, Tivani Phosa; Massenburg, Benjamin Ballard; Mate, Kedar K V; McAlinden, Colm; McGrath, John J; Mehta, Varshil; Meier, Toni; Meles, Hagazi Gebre; Melese, Addisu; Memiah, Peter T N; Memish, Ziad A; Mendoza, Walter; Mengistu, Desalegn Tadese; Mengistu, Getnet; Meretoja, Atte; Meretoja, Tuomo J; Mestrovic, Tomislav; Miazgowski, Bartosz; Miazgowski, Tomasz; Miller, Ted R; Mini, GK; Mirrakhimov, Erkin M; Moazen, Babak; Mohajer, Bahram; Mohammad Gholi Mezerji, Naser; Mohammadi, Moslem; Mohammadi-Khanaposhtani, Maryam; Mohammadibakhsh, Roghayeh; Mohammadnia-Afrouzi, Mousa; Mohammed, Shafiu; Mohebi, Farnam; Mokdad, Ali H; Monasta, Lorenzo; Mondello, Stefania; Moodley, Yoshan; Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Moradi, Ghobad; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Moradinazar, Mehdi; Moraga, Paula; Moreno Velásquez, Ilais; Morrison, Shane Douglas; Mousavi, Seyyed Meysam; Muhammed, Oumer Sada; Muruet, Walter; Musa, Kamarul Imran; Mustafa, Ghulam; Naderi, Mehdi; Nagel, Gabriele; Naheed, Aliya; Naik, Gurudatta; Najafi, Farid; Nangia, Vinay; Negoi, Ionut; Negoi, Ruxandra Irina; Newton, Charles Richard James; Ngunjiri, Josephine W; Nguyen, Cuong Tat; Nguyen, Long Hoang; Ningrum, Dina Nur Anggraini; Nirayo, Yirga Legesse; Nixon, Molly R; Norrving, Bo; Noubiap, Jean Jacques; Nourollahpour Shiadeh, Malihe; Nyasulu, Peter S; Ogah, Okechukwu Samuel; Oh, In-Hwan; Olagunju, Andrew T; Olagunju, Tinuke O; Olivares, Pedro R; Onwujekwe, Obinna E; Oren, Eyal; Owolabi, Mayowa Ojo; PA, Mahesh; Pakpour, Amir H; Pan, Wen-Harn; Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra; Pandian, Jeyaraj Durai; Patel, Sangram Kishor; Pereira, David M; Petzold, Max; Pillay, Julian David; Piradov, Michael A; Polanczyk, Guilherme V; Polinder, Suzanne; Postma, Maarten J; Poulton, Richie; Poustchi, Hossein; Prakash, Swayam; Prakash, V; Qorbani, Mostafa; Radfar, Amir; Rafay, Anwar; Rafiei, Alireza; Rahim, Fakher; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Rahman, Mohammad Hifz Ur; Rahman, Muhammad Aziz; Rajati, Fatemeh; Ram, Usha; Ranta, Anna; Rawaf, David Laith; Rawaf, Salman; Reinig, Nickolas; Reis, Cesar; Renzaho, Andre M N; Resnikoff, Serge; Rezaeian, Shahab; Rezai, Mohammad Sadegh; Rios González, Carlos Miguel; Roberts, Nicholas L S; Roever, Leonardo; Ronfani, Luca; Roro, Elias Merdassa; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Rostami, Ali; Sabbagh, Parisa; Sacco, Ralph L; Sachdev, Perminder S; Saddik, Basema; Safari, Hosein; Safari-Faramani, Roya; Safi, Sare; Safiri, Saeid; Sagar, Rajesh; Sahathevan, Ramesh; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Salamati, Payman; Salehi Zahabi, Saleh; Salimi, Yahya; Samy, Abdallah M; Sanabria, Juan; Santos, Itamar S; Santric Milicevic, Milena M; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Sartorius, Benn; Sarvi, Shahabeddin; Sathian, Brijesh; Satpathy, Maheswar; Sawant, Arundhati R; Sawhney, Monika; Schneider, Ione J C; Schöttker, Ben; Schwebel, David C; Seedat, Soraya; Sepanlou, Sadaf G; Shabaninejad, Hosein; Shafieesabet, Azadeh; Shaikh, Masood Ali; Shakir, Raad A; Shams-Beyranvand, Mehran; Shamsizadeh, Morteza; Sharif, Mehdi; Sharif-Alhoseini, Mahdi; She, Jun; Sheikh, Aziz; Sheth, Kevin N; Shigematsu, Mika; Shiri, Rahman; Shirkoohi, Reza; Shiue, Ivy; Siabani, Soraya; Siddiqi, Tariq J; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Sigurvinsdottir, Rannveig; Silberberg, Donald H; Silva, João Pedro; Silveira, Dayane Gabriele Alves; Singh, Jasvinder A; Sinha, Dhirendra Narain; Skiadaresi, Eirini; Smith, Mari; Sobaih, Badr Hasan; Sobhani, Soheila; Soofi, Moslem; Soyiri, Ireneous N; Sposato, Luciano A; Stein, Dan J; Stein, Murray B; Stokes, Mark A; Sufiyan, Mu'awiyyah Babale; Sykes, Bryan L; Sylaja, PN; Tabarés-Seisdedos, Rafael; Te Ao, Braden James; Tehrani-Banihashemi, Arash; Temsah, Mohamad-Hani; Temsah, Omar; Thakur, Jarnail Singh; Thrift, Amanda G; Topor-Madry, Roman; Tortajada-Girbés, Miguel; Tovani-Palone, Marcos Roberto; Tran, Bach Xuan; Tran, Khanh Bao; Truelsen, Thomas Clement; Tsadik, Afewerki Gebremeskel; Tudor Car, Lorainne; Ukwaja, Kingsley Nnanna; Ullah, Irfan; Usman, Muhammad Shariq; Uthman, Olalekan A; Valdez, Pascual R; Vasankari, Tommi Juhani; Vasanthan, Rajagopalan; Veisani, Yousef; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Violante, Francesco S; Vlassov, Vasily; Vosoughi, Kia; Vu, Giang Thu; Vujcic, Isidora S; Wagnew, Fasil Shiferaw; Waheed, Yasir; Wang, Yuan-Pang; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weiss, Jordan; Whiteford, Harvey A; Wijeratne, Tissa; Winkler, Andrea Sylvia; Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Wolfe, Charles D A; Xu, Gelin; Yadollahpour, Ali; Yamada, Tomohide; Yano, Yuichiro; Yaseri, Mehdi; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Yimer, Ebrahim M; Yip, Paul; Yisma, Engida; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Yu, Chuanhua; Zaidi, Zoubida; Zaman, Sojib Bin; Zamani, Mohammad; Zandian, Hamed; Zare, Zohreh; Zhang, Yunquan; Zodpey, Sanjay; Naghavi, Mohsen; Murray, Christopher J L; Vos, Theo

Authors

Valery L Feigin

Emma Nichols

Tahiya Alam

Marlena S Bannick

Ettore Beghi

Natacha Blake

William J Culpepper

E Ray Dorsey

Alexis Elbaz

Richard G Ellenbogen

James L Fisher

Christina Fitzmaurice

Giorgia Giussani

Linda Glennie

Spencer L James

Catherine Owens Johnson

Nicholas J Kassebaum

Giancarlo Logroscino

Benoît Marin

W Cliff Mountjoy-Venning

Minh Nguyen

Richard Ofori-Asenso

Anoop P Patel

Marco Piccininni

Gregory A Roth

Timothy J Steiner

Lars Jacob Stovner

Cassandra E I Szoeke

Alice Theadom

Stein Emil Vollset

Mitchell Taylor Wallin

Claire Wright

Joseph Raymond Zunt

Nooshin Abbasi

Foad Abd-Allah

Ahmed Abdelalim

Ibrahim Abdollahpour

Victor Aboyans

Haftom Niguse Abraha

Dilaram Acharya

Abdu A Adamu

Oladimeji M Adebayo

Abiodun Moshood Adeoye

Jose C Adsuar

Mohsen Afarideh

Sutapa Agrawal

Alireza Ahmadi

Muktar Beshir Ahmed

Amani Nidhal Aichour

Ibtihel Aichour

Miloud Taki Eddine Aichour

Rufus Olusola Akinyemi

Nadia Akseer

Ayman Al-Eyadhy

Rustam Al-Shahi Salman

Fares Alahdab

Kefyalew Addis Alene

Syed Mohamed Aljunid

Khalid Altirkawi

Nelson Alvis-Guzman

Nahla Hamed Anber

Carl Abelardo T Antonio

Jalal Arabloo

Olatunde Aremu

Johan Ärnlöv

Hamid Asayesh

Rana Jawad Asghar

Hagos Tasew Atalay

Ashish Awasthi

Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla

Tambe B Ayuk

Alaa Badawi

Maciej Banach

Joseph Adel Mattar Banoub

Miguel A Barboza

Suzanne Lyn Barker-Collo

Till Winfried Bärnighausen

Bernhard T Baune

Neeraj Bedi

Masoud Behzadifar

Meysam Behzadifar

Yannick Béjot

Bayu Begashaw Bekele

Abate Bekele Belachew

Derrick A Bennett

Isabela M Bensenor

Adugnaw Berhane

Mircea Beuran

Krittika Bhattacharyya

Zulfiqar A Bhutta

Belete Biadgo

Ali Bijani

Nigus Bililign

Muhammad Shahdaat Bin Sayeed

Christopher Kynrint Blazes

Carol Brayne

Zahid A Butt

Ismael R Campos-Nonato

Carlos Cantu-Brito

Mate Car

Rosario Cárdenas

Juan J Carrero

Félix Carvalho

Carlos A Castañeda-Orjuela

Franz Castro

Ferrán Catalá-López

Ester Cerin

Yazan Chaiah

Jung-Chen Chang

Irini Chatziralli

Peggy Pei-Chia Chiang

Hanne Christensen

Devasahayam J Christopher

Cyrus Cooper

Paolo Angelo Cortesi

Vera M Costa

Michael H Criqui

Christopher Stephen Crowe

Albertino Antonio Moura Damasceno

Ahmad Daryani

Vanessa De la Cruz-Góngora

Fernando Pio De la Hoz

Diego De Leo

Gebre Teklemariam Demoz

Kebede Deribe

Samath Dhamminda Dharmaratne

Daniel Diaz

Mesfin Tadese Dinberu

Shirin Djalalinia

David Teye Doku

Manisha Dubey

Eleonora Dubljanin

Eyasu Ejeta Duken

David Edvardsson

Ziad El-Khatib

Matthias Endres

Aman Yesuf Endries

Sharareh Eskandarieh

Alireza Esteghamati

Sadaf Esteghamati

Farzaneh Farhadi

Andre Faro

Farshad Farzadfar

Mohammad Hosein Farzaei

Batool Fatima

Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad

Eduarda Fernandes

Garumma Tolu Feyissa

Irina Filip

Florian Fischer

Takeshi Fukumoto

Morsaleh Ganji

Fortune Gbetoho Gankpe

Miguel A Garcia-Gordillo

Abadi Kahsu Gebre

Teklu Gebrehiwo Gebremichael

Belayneh K Gelaw

Johanna M Geleijnse

Demeke Geremew

Kebede Embaye Gezae

Maryam Ghasemi-Kasman

Mahari Y Gidey

Paramjit Singh Gill

Tiffany K Gill

Efrata Tufa Girma

Elena V Gnedovskaya

Alessandra C Goulart

Ayman Grada

Giuseppe Grosso

Yuming Guo

Rahul Gupta

Rajeev Gupta

Juanita A Haagsma

Tekleberhan B Hagos

Arvin Haj-Mirzaian

Arya Haj-Mirzaian

Randah R Hamadeh

Samer Hamidi

Graeme J Hankey

Yuantao Hao

Josep Maria Haro

Hadi Hassankhani

Hamid Yimam Hassen

Rasmus Havmoeller

Simon I Hay

Mohamed I Hegazy

Behnam Heidari

Andualem Henok

Fatemeh Heydarpour

Chi Linh Hoang

Michael K Hole

Enayatollah Homaie Rad

Seyed Mostafa Hosseini

Guoqing Hu

Ehimario U Igumbor

Olayinka Stephen Ilesanmi

Seyed Sina Naghibi Irvani

Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam

Mihajlo Jakovljevic

Mehdi Javanbakht

Ravi Prakash Jha

Yash B Jobanputra

Jost B Jonas

Jacek Jerzy Jozwiak

Mikk Jürisson

Amaha Kahsay

Rizwan Kalani

Yogeshwar Kalkonde

Teshome Abegaz Kamil

Tanuj Kanchan

Manoochehr Karami

André Karch

Narges Karimi

Amir Kasaeian

Tesfaye Dessale Kassa

Zemenu Yohannes Kassa

Anil Kaul

Adane Teshome Kefale

Peter Njenga Keiyoro

Yousef Saleh Khader

Morteza Abdullatif Khafaie

Ibrahim A Khalil

Ejaz Ahmad Khan

Young-Ho Khang

Habibolah Khazaie

Aliasghar A Kiadaliri

Daniel N Kiirithio

Anthony S Kim

Daniel Kim

Young-Eun Kim

Yun Jin Kim

Adnan Kisa

Yoshihiro Kokubo

Ai Koyanagi

Rita V Krishnamurthi

Barthelemy Kuate Defo

Burcu Kucuk Bicer

Manasi Kumar

Ben Lacey

Alessandra Lafranconi

Van C Lansingh

Arman Latifi

Cheru Tesema Leshargie

Shanshan Li

Yu Liao

Shai Linn

Warren David Lo

Jaifred Christian F Lopez

Stefan Lorkowski

Paulo A Lotufo

Robyn M Lucas

Raimundas Lunevicius

Mark T Mackay

Narayan Bahadur Mahotra

Marek Majdan

Reza Majdzadeh

Azeem Majeed

Reza Malekzadeh

Deborah Carvalho Malta

Navid Manafi

Mohammad Ali Mansournia

Lorenzo Giovanni Mantovani

Winfried März

Tivani Phosa Mashamba-Thompson

Benjamin Ballard Massenburg

Kedar K V Mate

Colm McAlinden

John J McGrath

Varshil Mehta

Toni Meier

Hagazi Gebre Meles

Addisu Melese

Peter T N Memiah

Ziad A Memish

Walter Mendoza

Desalegn Tadese Mengistu

Getnet Mengistu

Atte Meretoja

Tuomo J Meretoja

Tomislav Mestrovic

Bartosz Miazgowski

Tomasz Miazgowski

Ted R Miller

GK Mini

Erkin M Mirrakhimov

Babak Moazen

Bahram Mohajer

Naser Mohammad Gholi Mezerji

Moslem Mohammadi

Maryam Mohammadi-Khanaposhtani

Roghayeh Mohammadibakhsh

Mousa Mohammadnia-Afrouzi

Shafiu Mohammed

Farnam Mohebi

Ali H Mokdad

Lorenzo Monasta

Stefania Mondello

Yoshan Moodley

Mahmood Moosazadeh

Ghobad Moradi

Maziar Moradi-Lakeh

Mehdi Moradinazar

Paula Moraga

Ilais Moreno Velásquez

Shane Douglas Morrison

Seyyed Meysam Mousavi

Oumer Sada Muhammed

Walter Muruet

Kamarul Imran Musa

Ghulam Mustafa

Mehdi Naderi

Gabriele Nagel

Aliya Naheed

Gurudatta Naik

Farid Najafi

Vinay Nangia

Ionut Negoi

Ruxandra Irina Negoi

Charles Richard James Newton

Josephine W Ngunjiri

Cuong Tat Nguyen

Long Hoang Nguyen

Dina Nur Anggraini Ningrum

Yirga Legesse Nirayo

Molly R Nixon

Bo Norrving

Jean Jacques Noubiap

Malihe Nourollahpour Shiadeh

Peter S Nyasulu

Okechukwu Samuel Ogah

In-Hwan Oh

Andrew T Olagunju

Tinuke O Olagunju

Pedro R Olivares

Obinna E Onwujekwe

Eyal Oren

Mayowa Ojo Owolabi

Mahesh PA

Amir H Pakpour

Wen-Harn Pan

Songhomitra Panda-Jonas

Jeyaraj Durai Pandian

Sangram Kishor Patel

David M Pereira

Max Petzold

Julian David Pillay

Michael A Piradov

Guilherme V Polanczyk

Suzanne Polinder

Maarten J Postma

Richie Poulton

Hossein Poustchi

Swayam Prakash

V Prakash

Mostafa Qorbani

Amir Radfar

Anwar Rafay

Alireza Rafiei

Fakher Rahim

Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar

Mahfuzar Rahman

Mohammad Hifz Ur Rahman

Muhammad Aziz Rahman

Fatemeh Rajati

Usha Ram

Anna Ranta

David Laith Rawaf

Salman Rawaf

Nickolas Reinig

Cesar Reis

Andre M N Renzaho

Serge Resnikoff

Shahab Rezaeian

Mohammad Sadegh Rezai

Carlos Miguel Rios González

Nicholas L S Roberts

Leonardo Roever

Luca Ronfani

Elias Merdassa Roro

Gholamreza Roshandel

Ali Rostami

Parisa Sabbagh

Ralph L Sacco

Perminder S Sachdev

Basema Saddik

Hosein Safari

Roya Safari-Faramani

Sare Safi

Saeid Safiri

Rajesh Sagar

Ramesh Sahathevan

Amirhossein Sahebkar

Mohammad Ali Sahraian

Payman Salamati

Saleh Salehi Zahabi

Yahya Salimi

Abdallah M Samy

Juan Sanabria

Itamar S Santos

Milena M Santric Milicevic

Nizal Sarrafzadegan

Benn Sartorius

Shahabeddin Sarvi

Brijesh Sathian

Maheswar Satpathy

Arundhati R Sawant

Monika Sawhney

Ione J C Schneider

Ben Schöttker

David C Schwebel

Soraya Seedat

Sadaf G Sepanlou

Hosein Shabaninejad

Azadeh Shafieesabet

Masood Ali Shaikh

Raad A Shakir

Mehran Shams-Beyranvand

Morteza Shamsizadeh

Mehdi Sharif

Mahdi Sharif-Alhoseini

Jun She

Aziz Sheikh

Kevin N Sheth

Mika Shigematsu

Rahman Shiri

Reza Shirkoohi

Ivy Shiue

Soraya Siabani

Tariq J Siddiqi

Inga Dora Sigfusdottir

Rannveig Sigurvinsdottir

Donald H Silberberg

João Pedro Silva

Dayane Gabriele Alves Silveira

Jasvinder A Singh

Dhirendra Narain Sinha

Eirini Skiadaresi

Mari Smith

Badr Hasan Sobaih

Soheila Sobhani

Moslem Soofi

Luciano A Sposato

Dan J Stein

Murray B Stein

Mark A Stokes

Mu'awiyyah Babale Sufiyan

Bryan L Sykes

PN Sylaja

Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos

Braden James Te Ao

Arash Tehrani-Banihashemi

Mohamad-Hani Temsah

Omar Temsah

Jarnail Singh Thakur

Amanda G Thrift

Roman Topor-Madry

Miguel Tortajada-Girbés

Marcos Roberto Tovani-Palone

Bach Xuan Tran

Khanh Bao Tran

Thomas Clement Truelsen

Afewerki Gebremeskel Tsadik

Lorainne Tudor Car

Kingsley Nnanna Ukwaja

Irfan Ullah

Muhammad Shariq Usman

Olalekan A Uthman

Pascual R Valdez

Tommi Juhani Vasankari

Rajagopalan Vasanthan

Yousef Veisani

Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian

Francesco S Violante

Vasily Vlassov

Kia Vosoughi

Giang Thu Vu

Isidora S Vujcic

Fasil Shiferaw Wagnew

Yasir Waheed

Yuan-Pang Wang

Elisabete Weiderpass

Jordan Weiss

Harvey A Whiteford

Tissa Wijeratne

Andrea Sylvia Winkler

Charles Shey Wiysonge

Charles D A Wolfe

Gelin Xu

Ali Yadollahpour

Tomohide Yamada

Yuichiro Yano

Mehdi Yaseri

Hiroshi Yatsuya

Ebrahim M Yimer

Paul Yip

Engida Yisma

Naohiro Yonemoto

Mahmoud Yousefifard

Chuanhua Yu

Zoubida Zaidi

Sojib Bin Zaman

Mohammad Zamani

Hamed Zandian

Zohreh Zare

Yunquan Zhang

Sanjay Zodpey

Mohsen Naghavi

Christopher J L Murray

Theo Vos



Contributors

Abstract

Background
Neurological disorders are increasingly recognised as major causes of death and disability worldwide. The aim of this analysis from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2016 is to provide the most comprehensive and up-to-date estimates of the global, regional, and national burden from neurological disorders.

Methods
We estimated prevalence, incidence, deaths, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs; the sum of years of life lost [YLLs] and years lived with disability [YLDs]) by age and sex for 15 neurological disorder categories (tetanus, meningitis, encephalitis, stroke, brain and other CNS cancers, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, motor neuron diseases, idiopathic epilepsy, migraine, tension-type headache, and a residual category for other less common neurological disorders) in 195 countries from 1990 to 2016. DisMod-MR 2.1, a Bayesian meta-regression tool, was the main method of estimation of prevalence and incidence, and the Cause of Death Ensemble model (CODEm) was used for mortality estimation. We quantified the contribution of 84 risks and combinations of risk to the disease estimates for the 15 neurological disorder categories using the GBD comparative risk assessment approach.

Findings
Globally, in 2016, neurological disorders were the leading cause of DALYs (276 million [95% UI 247–308]) and second leading cause of deaths (9·0 million [8·8–9·4]). The absolute number of deaths and DALYs from all neurological disorders combined increased (deaths by 39% [34–44] and DALYs by 15% [9–21]) whereas their age-standardised rates decreased (deaths by 28% [26–30] and DALYs by 27% [24–31]) between 1990 and 2016. The only neurological disorders that had a decrease in rates and absolute numbers of deaths and DALYs were tetanus, meningitis, and encephalitis. The four largest contributors of neurological DALYs were stroke (42·2% [38·6–46·1]), migraine (16·3% [11·7–20·8]), Alzheimer's and other dementias (10·4% [9·0–12·1]), and meningitis (7·9% [6·6–10·4]). For the combined neurological disorders, age-standardised DALY rates were significantly higher in males than in females (male-to-female ratio 1·12 [1·05–1·20]), but migraine, multiple sclerosis, and tension-type headache were more common and caused more burden in females, with male-to-female ratios of less than 0·7. The 84 risks quantified in GBD explain less than 10% of neurological disorder DALY burdens, except stroke, for which 88·8% (86·5–90·9) of DALYs are attributable to risk factors, and to a lesser extent Alzheimer's disease and other dementias (22·3% [11·8–35·1] of DALYs are risk attributable) and idiopathic epilepsy (14·1% [10·8–17·5] of DALYs are risk attributable).

Interpretation
Globally, the burden of neurological disorders, as measured by the absolute number of DALYs, continues to increase. As populations are growing and ageing, and the prevalence of major disabling neurological disorders steeply increases with age, governments will face increasing demand for treatment, rehabilitation, and support services for neurological disorders. The scarcity of established modifiable risks for most of the neurological burden demonstrates that new knowledge is required to develop effective prevention and treatment strategies.

Funding
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Journal Article Type Article
Publication Date May 1, 2019
Journal The Lancet Neurology
Print ISSN 1474-4422
Electronic ISSN 1474-4465
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 18
Issue 5
Pages 459-480
Institution Citation Feigin, V. L., Nichols, E., Alam, T., Bannick, M. S., Beghi, E., Blake, N., …Vos, T. (2019). Global, regional, and national burden of neurological disorders, 1990–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. Lancet Neurology, 18(5), 459-480. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422%2818%2930499-X
DOI https://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422%2818%2930499-X
Keywords Clinical Neurology
Publisher URL https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S147444221830499X?via%3Dihub

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Copyright Statement
© The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.







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