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Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 354 Diseases and Injuries for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2017: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017

Naik, Gurudatta; James, Spencer L; Abate, Degu; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen; Abay, Solomon M; Abbafati, Cristiana; Abbasi, Nooshin; Abbastabar, Hedayat; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abdela, Jemal; Abdelalim, Ahmed; Abdollahpour, Ibrahim; Abdulkader, Rizwan Suliankatchi; Abebe, Zegeye; Abera, Semaw F; Abil, Olifan Zewdie; Abraha, Haftom Niguse; Abu-Raddad, Laith Jamal; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M E; Accrombessi, Manfred Mario Kokou; Acharya, Dilaram; Acharya, Pawan; Ackerman, Ilana N; Adamu, Abdu A; Adebayo, Oladimeji M; Adekanmbi, Victor; Adetokunboh, Olatunji O; Adib, Mina G; Adsuar, Jose C; Afanvi, Kossivi Agbelenko; Afarideh, Mohsen; Afshin, Ashkan; Agarwal, Gina; Agesa, Kareha M; Aggarwal, Rakesh; Aghayan, Sargis Aghasi; Agrawal, Sutapa; Ahmadi, Alireza; Ahmadi, Mehdi; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir; Aichour, Amani Nidhal; Aichour, Ibtihel; Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine; Akinyemiju, Tomi; Akseer, Nadia; Al-Aly, Ziyad; Al-Eyadhy, Ayman; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa M; Alahdab, Fares; Alam, Khurshid; Alam, Tahiya; Alashi, Alaa; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Alene, Kefyalew Addis; Alijanzadeh, Mehran; Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Alla, François; Allebeck, Peter; Alouani, Mohamed M L; Altirkawi, Khalid; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Amare, Azmeraw T; Aminde, Leopold N; Ammar, Walid; Amoako, Yaw Ampem; Anber, Nahla Hamed; Andrei, Catalina Liliana; Androudi, Sofia; Animut, Megbaru Debalkie; Anjomshoa, Mina; Ansha, Mustafa Geleto; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T; Anwari, Palwasha; Arabloo, Jalal; Arauz, Antonio; Aremu, Olatunde; Ariani, Filippo; Armoon, Bahroom; Ärnlöv, Johan; Arora, Amit; Artaman, Al; Aryal, Krishna K; Asayesh, Hamid; Asghar, Rana Jawad; Ataro, Zerihun; Atre, Sachin R; Ausloos, Marcel; Avila-Burgos, Leticia; Avokpaho, Euripide F G A; Awasthi, Ashish; Ayala Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina; Ayer, Rakesh; Azzopardi, Peter S; Babazadeh, Arefeh; Badali, Hamid; Badawi, Alaa; Bali, Ayele Geleto; Ballesteros, Katherine E; Ballew, Shoshana H; Banach, Maciej; Banoub, Joseph Adel Mattar; Banstola, Amrit; Barac, Aleksandra; Barboza, Miguel A; Barker-Collo, Suzanne Lyn; Bärnighausen, Till Winfried; Barrero, Lope H; Baune, Bernhard T; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Bedi, Neeraj; Beghi, Ettore; Behzadifar, Masoud; Behzadifar, Meysam; Béjot, Yannick; Belachew, Abate Bekele; Belay, Yihalem Abebe; Bell, Michelle L; Bello, Aminu K; Bensenor, Isabela M; Bernabe, Eduardo; Bernstein, Robert S; Beuran, Mircea; Beyranvand, Tina; Bhala, Neeraj; Bhattarai, Suraj; Bhaumik, Soumyadeep; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Biadgo, Belete; Bijani, Ali; Bikbov, Boris; Bilano, Ver; Bililign, Nigus; Bin Sayeed, Muhammad Shahdaat; Bisanzio, Donal; Blacker, Brigette F; Blyth, Fiona M; Bou-Orm, Ibrahim R; Boufous, Soufiane; Bourne, Rupert; Brady, Oliver J; Brainin, Michael; Brant, Luisa C; Brazinova, Alexandra; Breitborde, Nicholas J K; Brenner, Hermann; Briant, Paul Svitil; Briggs, Andrew M; Briko, Andrey Nikolaevich; Britton, Gabrielle; Brugha, Traolach; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Busse, Reinhard; Butt, Zahid A; Cahuana-Hurtado, Lucero; Cano, Jorge; Cárdenas, Rosario; Carrero, Juan J; Carter, Austin; Carvalho, Félix; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos A; Castillo Rivas, Jacqueline; Castro, Franz; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Cercy, Kelly M; Cerin, Ester; Chaiah, Yazan; Chang, Alex R; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Chang, Jung-Chen; Charlson, Fiona J; Chattopadhyay, Aparajita; Chattu, Vijay Kumar; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Chiang, Peggy Pei-Chia; Chin, Ken Lee; Chitheer, Abdulaal; Choi, Jee-Young J; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Christensen, Hanne; Christopher, Devasahayam J; Cicuttini, Flavia M; Ciobanu, Liliana G; Cirillo, Massimo; Claro, Rafael M; Collado-Mateo, Daniel; Cooper, Cyrus; Coresh, Josef; Cortesi, Paolo Angelo; Cortinovis, Monica; Costa, Megan; Cousin, Ewerton; Criqui, Michael H; Cromwell, Elizabeth A; Cross, Marita; Crump, John A; Dadi, Abel Fekadu; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; Dargan, Paul I; Daryani, Ahmad; Das Gupta, Rajat; Das Neves, José; Dasa, Tamirat Tesfaye; Davey, Gail; Davis, Adrian C; Davitoiu, Dragos Virgil; De Courten, Barbora; De La Hoz, Fernando Pio; De Leo, Diego; De Neve, Jan-Walter; Degefa, Meaza Girma; Degenhardt, Louisa; Deiparine, Selina; Dellavalle, Robert P; Demoz, Gebre Teklemariam; Deribe, Kebede; Dervenis, Nikolaos; Des Jarlais, Don C; Dessie, Getenet Ayalew; Dey, Subhojit; Dharmaratne, Samath Dhamminda; Dinberu, Mesfin Tadese; Dirac, M Ashworth; Djalalinia, Shirin; Doan, Linh; Dokova, Klara; Doku, David Teye; Dorsey, E Ray; Doyle, Kerrie E; Driscoll, Tim Robert; Dubey, Manisha; Dubljanin, Eleonora; Duken, Eyasu Ejeta; Duncan, Bruce B; Duraes, Andre R; Ebrahimi, Hedyeh; Ebrahimpour, Soheil; Echko, Michelle Marie; Edvardsson, David; Effiong, Andem; Ehrlich, Joshua R; El Bcheraoui, Charbel; El Sayed Zaki, Maysaa; El-Khatib, Ziad; Elkout, Hajer; Elyazar, Iqbal R F; Enayati, Ahmadali; Endries, Aman Yesuf; Er, Benjamin; Erskine, Holly E; Eshrati, Babak; Eskandarieh, Sharareh; Esteghamati, Alireza; Esteghamati, Sadaf; Fakhim, Hamed; Fallah Omrani, Vahid; Faramarzi, Mahbobeh; Fareed, Mohammad; Farhadi, Farzaneh; Farid, Talha A; Farinha, Carla Sofia E sá; Farioli, Andrea; Faro, Andre; Farvid, Maryam S; Farzadfar, Farshad; Feigin, Valery L; Fentahun, Netsanet; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fernandes, Eduarda; Fernandes, Joao C; Ferrari, Alize J; Feyissa, Garumma Tolu; Filip, Irina; Fischer, Florian; Fitzmaurice, Christina; Foigt, Nataliya A; Foreman, Kyle J; Fox, Jack; Frank, Tahvi D; Fukumoto, Takeshi; Fullman, Nancy; Fürst, Thomas; Furtado, João M; Futran, Neal D; Gall, Seana; Ganji, Morsaleh; Gankpe, Fortune Gbetoho; Garcia-Basteiro, Alberto L; Gardner, William M; Gebre, Abadi Kahsu; Gebremedhin, Amanuel Tesfay; Gebremichael, Teklu Gebrehiwo; Gelano, Tilayie Feto; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Genova-Maleras, Ricard; Geramo, Yilma Chisha Dea; Gething, Peter W; Gezae, Kebede Embaye; Ghadiri, Keyghobad; Ghasemi Falavarjani, Khalil; Ghasemi-Kasman, Maryam; Ghimire, Mamata; Ghosh, Rakesh; Ghoshal, Aloke Gopal; Giampaoli, Simona; Gill, Paramjit Singh; Gill, Tiffany K; Ginawi, Ibrahim Abdelmageed; Giussani, Giorgia; Gnedovskaya, Elena V; Goldberg, Ellen M; Goli, Srinivas; Gómez-Dantés, Hector; Gona, Philimon N; Gopalani, Sameer Vali; Gorman, Taren M; Goulart, Alessandra C; Goulart, Bárbara Niegia Garcia; Grada, Ayman; Grams, Morgan E; Grosso, Giuseppe; Gugnani, Harish Chander; Guo, Yuming; Gupta, Prakash C; Gupta, Rahul; Gupta, Rajeev; Gupta, Tanush; Gyawali, Bishal; Haagsma, Juanita A; Hachinski, Vladimir; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Haghparast Bidgoli, Hassan; Hagos, Tekleberhan B; Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa; Haj-Mirzaian, Arvin; Haj-Mirzaian, Arya; Hamadeh, Randah R; Hamidi, Samer; Handal, Alexis J; Hankey, Graeme J; Hao, Yuantao; Harb, Hilda L; Harikrishnan, Sivadasanpillai; Haro, Josep Maria; Hasan, Mehedi; Hassankhani, Hadi; Hassen, Hamid Yimam; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hawley, Caitlin N; Hay, Roderick J; Hay, Simon I; Hedayatizadeh-Omran, Akbar; Heibati, Behzad; Hendrie, Delia; Henok, Andualem; Herteliu, Claudiu; Heydarpour, Sousan; Hibstu, Desalegn Tsegaw; Hoang, Huong Thanh; Hoek, Hans W; Hoffman, Howard J; Hole, Michael K; Homaie Rad, Enayatollah; Hoogar, Praveen; Hosgood, H Dean; Hosseini, Seyed Mostafa; Hosseinzadeh, Mehdi; Hostiuc, Mihaela; Hostiuc, Sorin; Hotez, Peter J; Hoy, Damian G; Hsairi, Mohamed; Htet, Aung Soe; Hu, Guoqing; Huang, John J; Huynh, Chantal K; Iburg, Kim Moesgaard; Ikeda, Chad Thomas; Ileanu, Bogdan; Ilesanmi, Olayinka Stephen; Iqbal, Usman; Irvani, Seyed Sina Naghibi; Irvine, Caleb Mackay Salpeter; Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful; Islami, Farhad; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Jahangiry, Leila; Jahanmehr, Nader; Jain, Sudhir Kumar; Jakovljevic, Mihajlo; Javanbakht, Mehdi; Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Jha, Ravi Prakash; Jha, Vivekanand; Ji, John S; Johnson, Catherine O; Jonas, Jost B; Jozwiak, Jacek Jerzy; Jungari, Suresh Banayya; Jürisson, Mikk; Kabir, Zubair; Kadel, Rajendra; Kahsay, Amaha; Kalani, Rizwan; Kanchan, Tanuj; Karami, Manoochehr; Karami Matin, Behzad; Karch, André; Karema, Corine; Karimi, Narges; Karimi, Seyed M; Kasaeian, Amir; Kassa, Dessalegn H; Kassa, Getachew Mullu; Kassa, Tesfaye Dessale; Kassebaum, Nicholas J; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Kawakami, Norito; Karyani, Ali Kazemi; Keighobadi, Masoud Masoud; Keiyoro, Peter Njenga; Kemmer, Laura; Kemp, Grant Rodgers; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Keren, Andre; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khafaei, Behzad; Khafaie, Morteza Abdullatif; Khajavi, Alireza; Khalil, Ibrahim A; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khan, Muhammad Shahzeb; Khan, Muhammad Ali; Khang, Young-Ho; Khazaei, Mohammad; Khoja, Abdullah T; Khosravi, Ardeshir; Khosravi, Mohammad Hossein; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar A; Kiirithio, Daniel N; Kim, Cho-Il; Kim, Daniel; Kim, Pauline; Kim, Young-Eun; Kim, Yun Jin; Kimokoti, Ruth W; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kisa, Adnan; Kissimova-Skarbek, Katarzyna; Kivimäki, Mika; Knudsen, Ann Kristin Skrindo; Kocarnik, Jonathan M; Kochhar, Sonali; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Kolola, Tufa; Kopec, Jacek A; Kosen, Soewarta; Kotsakis, Georgios A; Koul, Parvaiz A; Koyanagi, Ai; Kravchenko, Michael A; Krishan, Kewal; Krohn, Kristopher J; Kuate Defo, Barthelemy; Kucuk Bicer, Burcu; Kumar, G Anil; Kumar, Manasi; Kyu, Hmwe Hmwe; Lad, Deepesh P; Lad, Sheetal D; Lafranconi, Alessandra; Lalloo, Ratilal; Lallukka, Tea; Lami, Faris Hasan; Lansingh, Van C; Latifi, Arman; Lau, Kathryn Mei-Ming; Lazarus, Jeffrey V; Leasher, Janet L; Ledesma, Jorge R; Lee, Paul H; Leigh, James; Leung, Janni; Levi, Miriam; Lewycka, Sonia; Li, Shanshan; Li, Yichong; Liao, Yu; Liben, Misgan Legesse; Lim, Lee-Ling; Lim, Stephen S; Liu, Shiwei; Lodha, Rakesh; Looker, Katharine J; Lopez, Alan D; Lorkowski, Stefan; Lotufo, Paulo A; Low, Nicola; Lozano, Rafael; Lucas, Tim C D; Lucchesi, Lydia R; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Lyons, Ronan A; Ma, Stefan; Macarayan, Erlyn Rachelle King; Mackay, Mark T; Madotto, Fabiana; Magdy Abd El Razek, Hassan; Magdy Abd El Razek, Muhammed; Maghavani, Dhaval P; Mahotra, Narayan Bahadur; Mai, Hue Thi; Majdan, Marek; Majdzadeh, Reza; Majeed, Azeem; Malekzadeh, Reza; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Mamun, Abdullah A; Manda, Ana-Laura; Manguerra, Helena; Manhertz, Treh; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Mantovani, Lorenzo Giovanni; Mapoma, Chabila Christopher; Maravilla, Joemer C; Marcenes, Wagner; Marks, Ashley; Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlândio; Martopullo, Ira; März, Winfried; Marzan, Melvin B; Mashamba-Thompson, Tivani Phosa; Massenburg, Benjamin Ballard; Mathur, Manu Raj; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Maulik, Pallab K; Mazidi, Mohsen; McAlinden, Colm; McGrath, John J; McKee, Martin; Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Mehrotra, Ravi; Mehta, Kala M; Mehta, Varshil; Mejia-Rodriguez, Fabiola; Mekonen, Tesfa; Melese, Addisu; Melku, Mulugeta; Meltzer, Michele; Memiah, Peter T N; Memish, Ziad A; Mendoza, Walter; Mengistu, Desalegn Tadese; Mengistu, Getnet; Mensah, George A; Mereta, Seid Tiku; Meretoja, Atte; Meretoja, Tuomo J; Mestrovic, Tomislav; Mezerji, Naser Mohammad Gholi; Miazgowski, Bartosz; Miazgowski, Tomasz; Millear, Anoushka I; Miller, Ted R; Miltz, Benjamin; Mini, G K; Mirarefin, Mojde; Mirrakhimov, Erkin M; Misganaw, Awoke Temesgen; Mitchell, Philip B; Mitiku, Habtamu; Moazen, Babak; Mohajer, Bahram; Mohammad, Karzan Abdulmuhsin; Mohammadifard, Noushin; Mohammadnia-Afrouzi, Mousa; Mohammed, Mohammed A; Mohammed, Shafiu; Mohebi, Farnam; Moitra, Modhurima; Mokdad, Ali H; Molokhia, Mariam; Monasta, Lorenzo; Moodley, Yoshan; Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Moradi, Ghobad; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Moradinazar, Mehdi; Moraga, Paula; Morawska, Lidia; Moreno Velásquez, Ilais; Morgado-Da-Costa, Joana; Morrison, Shane Douglas; Moschos, Marilita M; Mousavi, Seyyed Meysam; Mruts, Kalayu Brhane; Muche, Achenef Asmamaw; Muchie, Kindie Fentahun; Mueller, Ulrich Otto; Muhammed, Oumer Sada; Mukhopadhyay, Satinath; Muller, Kate; Mumford, John Everett; Murhekar, Manoj; Musa, Jonah; Musa, Kamarul Imran; Mustafa, Ghulam; Nabhan, Ashraf F; Nagata, Chie; Naghavi, Mohsen; Naheed, Aliya; Nahvijou, Azin; Naik, Nitish; Najafi, Farid; Naldi, Luigi; Nam, Hae Sung; Nangia, Vinay; Nansseu, Jobert Richie; Nascimento, Bruno Ramos; Natarajan, Gopalakrishnan; Neamati, Nahid; Negoi, Ionut; Negoi, Ruxandra Irina; Neupane, Subas; Newton, Charles Richard James; Ngunjiri, Josephine W; Nguyen, Anh Quynh; Nguyen, Ha Thu; Nguyen, Huong Lan Thi; Nguyen, Huong Thanh; Nguyen, Long Hoang; Nguyen, Minh; Nguyen, Nam Ba; Nguyen, Son Hoang; Nichols, Emma; Ningrum, Dina Nur Anggraini; Nixon, Molly R; Nolutshungu, Nomonde; Nomura, Shuhei; Norheim, Ole F; Noroozi, Mehdi; Norrving, Bo; Noubiap, Jean Jacques; Nouri, Hamid Reza; Nourollahpour Shiadeh, Malihe; Nowroozi, Mohammad Reza; Nsoesie, Elaine O; Nyasulu, Peter S; Odell, Christopher M; Ofori-Asenso, Richard; Ogbo, Felix Akpojene; Oh, In-Hwan; Oladimeji, Olanrewaju; Olagunju, Andrew T; Olagunju, Tinuke O; Olivares, Pedro R; Olsen, Helen Elizabeth; Olusanya, Bolajoko Olubukunola; Ong, Kanyin L; Ong, Sok King; Oren, Eyal; Ortiz, Alberto; Ota, Erika; Otstavnov, Stanislav S; Øverland, Simon; Owolabi, Mayowa Ojo; P A, Mahesh; Pacella, Rosana; Pakpour, Amir H; Pana, Adrian; Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra; Parisi, Andrea; Park, Eun-Kee; Parry, Charles D H; Patel, Shanti; Pati, Sanghamitra; Patil, Snehal T; Patle, Ajay; Patton, George C; Paturi, Vishnupriya Rao; Paulson, Katherine R; Pearce, Neil; Pereira, David M; Perico, Norberto; Pesudovs, Konrad; Pham, Hai Quang; Phillips, Michael R; Pigott, David M; Pillay, Julian David; Piradov, Michael A; Pirsaheb, Meghdad; Pishgar, Farhad; Plana-Ripoll, Oleguer; Plass, Dietrich; Polinder, Suzanne; Popova, Svetlana; Postma, Maarten J; Pourshams, Akram; Poustchi, Hossein; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Prakash, Swayam; Prakash, V; Purcell, Caroline A; Purwar, Manorama B; Qorbani, Mostafa; Quistberg, D Alex; Radfar, Amir; Rafay, Anwar; Rafiei, Alireza; Rahim, Fakher; Rahimi, Kazem; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Rahman, Mohammad Hifz ur; Rahman, Muhammad Aziz; Rahman, Sajjad Ur; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Rajati, Fatemeh; Ram, Usha; Ranjan, Prabhat; Ranta, Anna; Rao, Puja C; Rawaf, David Laith; Rawaf, Salman; Reddy, K Srinath; Reiner, Robert C; Reinig, Nickolas; Reitsma, Marissa Bettay; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Renzaho, Andre M N; Resnikoff, Serge; Rezaei, Satar; Rezai, Mohammad Sadegh; Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz P; Robinson, Stephen R; Roever, Leonardo; Ronfani, Luca; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Rostami, Ali; Roth, Gregory A; Roy, Ambuj; Rubagotti, Enrico; Sachdev, Perminder S; Sadat, Nafis; Saddik, Basema; Sadeghi, Ehsan; Saeedi Moghaddam, Sahar; Safari, Hosein; Safari, Yahya; Safari-Faramani, Roya; Safdarian, Mahdi; Safi, Sare; Safiri, Saeid; Sagar, Rajesh; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Sajadi, Haniye Sadat; Salam, Nasir; Salama, Joseph S; Salamati, Payman; Saleem, Komal; Saleem, Zikria; Salimi, Yahya; Salomon, Joshua A; Salvi, Sundeep Santosh; Salz, Inbal; Samy, Abdallah M; Sanabria, Juan; Sang, Yingying; Santomauro, Damian Francesco; Santos, Itamar S; Santos, João Vasco; Santric Milicevic, Milena M; Sao Jose, Bruno Piassi; Sardana, Mayank; Sarker, Abdur Razzaque; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Sartorius, Benn; Sarvi, Shahabeddin; Sathian, Brijesh; Satpathy, Maheswar; Sawant, Arundhati R; Sawhney, Monika; Saxena, Sonia; Saylan, Mete; Schaeffner, Elke; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Schneider, Ione J C; Schöttker, Ben; Schwebel, David C; Schwendicke, Falk; Scott, James G; Sekerija, Mario; Sepanlou, Sadaf G; Serván-Mori, Edson; Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba; Shabaninejad, Hosein; Shafieesabet, Azadeh; Shahbazi, Mehdi; Shaheen, Amira A; Shaikh, Masood Ali; Shams-Beyranvand, Mehran; Shamsi, Mohammadbagher; Shamsizadeh, Morteza; Sharafi, Heidar; Sharafi, Kiomars; Sharif, Mehdi; Sharif-Alhoseini, Mahdi; Sharma, Meenakshi; Sharma, Rajesh; She, Jun; Sheikh, Aziz; Shi, Peilin; Shibuya, Kenji; Shigematsu, Mika; Shiri, Rahman; Shirkoohi, Reza; Shishani, Kawkab; Shiue, Ivy; Shokraneh, Farhad; Shoman, Haitham; Shrime, Mark G; Si, Si; Siabani, Soraya; Siddiqi, Tariq J; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Sigurvinsdottir, Rannveig; Silva, João Pedro; Silveira, Dayane Gabriele Alves; Singam, Narayana Sarma Venkata; Singh, Jasvinder A; Singh, Narinder Pal; Singh, Virendra; Sinha, Dhirendra Narain; Skiadaresi, Eirini; Slepak, Erica Leigh N; Sliwa, Karen; Smith, David L; Smith, Mari; Soares Filho, Adauto Martins; Sobaih, Badr Hasan; Sobhani, Soheila; Sobngwi, Eugène; Soneji, Samir S; Soofi, Moslem; Soosaraei, Masoud; Sorensen, Reed J D; Soriano, Joan B; Soyiri, Ireneous N; Sposato, Luciano A; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Srinivasan, Vinay; Stanaway, Jeffrey D; Stein, Dan J; Steiner, Caitlyn; Steiner, Timothy J; Stokes, Mark A; Stovner, Lars Jacob; Subart, Michelle L; Sudaryanto, Agus; Sufiyan, Mu'awiyyah Babale; Sunguya, Bruno F; Sur, Patrick John; Sutradhar, Ipsita; Sykes, Bryan L; Sylte, Dillon O; Tabarés-Seisdedos, Rafael; Tadakamadla, Santosh Kumar; Tadesse, Birkneh Tilahun; Tandon, Nikhil; Tassew, Segen Gebremeskel; Tavakkoli, Mohammad; Taveira, Nuno; Taylor, Hugh R; Tehrani-Banihashemi, Arash; Tekalign, Tigist Gashaw; Tekelemedhin, Shishay Wahdey; Tekle, Merhawi Gebremedhin; Temesgen, Habtamu; Temsah, Mohamad-Hani; Temsah, Omar; Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman; Teweldemedhin, Mebrahtu; Thankappan, Kavumpurathu Raman; Thomas, Nihal; Tilahun, Binyam; To, Quyen G; Tonelli, Marcello; Topor-Madry, Roman; Topouzis, Fotis; Torre, Anna E; Tortajada-Girbés, Miguel; Touvier, Mathilde; Tovani-Palone, Marcos Roberto; Towbin, Jeffrey A; Tran, Bach Xuan; Tran, Khanh Bao; Troeger, Christopher E; Truelsen, Thomas Clement; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis K; Tsoi, Derrick; Tudor Car, Lorainne; Tuzcu, E Murat; Ukwaja, Kingsley N; Ullah, Irfan; Undurraga, Eduardo A; Unutzer, Jurgen; Updike, Rachel L; Usman, Muhammad Shariq; Uthman, Olalekan A; Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Vaezi, Afsane; Valdez, Pascual R; Varughese, Santosh; Vasankari, Tommi Juhani; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Villafaina, Santos; Violante, Francesco S; Vladimirov, Sergey Konstantinovitch; Vlassov, Vasily; Vollset, Stein Emil; Vosoughi, Kia; Vujcic, Isidora S; Wagnew, Fasil Shiferaw; Waheed, Yasir; Waller, Stephen G; Wang, Yafeng; Wang, Yuan-Pang; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weintraub, Robert G; Weiss, Daniel J; Weldegebreal, Fitsum; Weldegwergs, Kidu Gidey; Werdecker, Andrea; West, T Eoin; Whiteford, Harvey A; Widecka, Justyna; Wijeratne, Tissa; Wilner, Lauren B; Wilson, Shadrach; Winkler, Andrea Sylvia; Wiyeh, Alison B; Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Wolfe, Charles D A; Woolf, Anthony D; Wu, Shouling; Wu, Yun-Chun; Wyper, Grant M A; Xavier, Denis; Xu, Gelin; Yadgir, Simon; Yadollahpour, Ali; Yahyazadeh Jabbari, Seyed Hossein; Yamada, Tomohide; Yan, Lijing L; Yano, Yuichiro; Yaseri, Mehdi; Yasin, Yasin Jemal; Yeshaneh, Alex; Yimer, Ebrahim M; Yip, Paul; Yisma, Engida; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Yotebieng, Marcel; Younis, Mustafa Z; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Yu, Chuanhua; Zadnik, Vesna; Zaidi, Zoubida; Zaman, Sojib Bin; Zamani, Mohammad; Zare, Zohreh; Zeleke, Ayalew Jejaw; Zenebe, Zerihun Menlkalew; Zhang, Kai; Zhao, Zheng; Zhou, Maigeng; Zodpey, Sanjay; Zucker, Inbar; Vos, Theo; Murray, Christopher J L

Authors

Gurudatta Naik

Spencer L James

Degu Abate

Kalkidan Hassen Abate

Solomon M Abay

Cristiana Abbafati

Nooshin Abbasi

Hedayat Abbastabar

Foad Abd-Allah

Jemal Abdela

Ahmed Abdelalim

Ibrahim Abdollahpour

Rizwan Suliankatchi Abdulkader

Zegeye Abebe

Semaw F Abera

Olifan Zewdie Abil

Haftom Niguse Abraha

Laith Jamal Abu-Raddad

Niveen M E Abu-Rmeileh

Manfred Mario Kokou Accrombessi

Dilaram Acharya

Pawan Acharya

Ilana N Ackerman

Abdu A Adamu

Oladimeji M Adebayo

Victor Adekanmbi

Olatunji O Adetokunboh

Mina G Adib

Jose C Adsuar

Kossivi Agbelenko Afanvi

Mohsen Afarideh

Ashkan Afshin

Gina Agarwal

Kareha M Agesa

Rakesh Aggarwal

Sargis Aghasi Aghayan

Sutapa Agrawal

Alireza Ahmadi

Mehdi Ahmadi

Hamid Ahmadieh

Muktar Beshir Ahmed

Amani Nidhal Aichour

Ibtihel Aichour

Miloud Taki Eddine Aichour

Tomi Akinyemiju

Nadia Akseer

Ziyad Al-Aly

Ayman Al-Eyadhy

Hesham M Al-Mekhlafi

Rajaa M Al-Raddadi

Fares Alahdab

Khurshid Alam

Tahiya Alam

Alaa Alashi

Seyed Moayed Alavian

Kefyalew Addis Alene

Mehran Alijanzadeh

Reza Alizadeh-Navaei

Syed Mohamed Aljunid

Ala'a Alkerwi

François Alla

Peter Allebeck

Mohamed M L Alouani

Khalid Altirkawi

Nelson Alvis-Guzman

Azmeraw T Amare

Leopold N Aminde

Walid Ammar

Yaw Ampem Amoako

Nahla Hamed Anber

Catalina Liliana Andrei

Sofia Androudi

Megbaru Debalkie Animut

Mina Anjomshoa

Mustafa Geleto Ansha

Carl Abelardo T Antonio

Palwasha Anwari

Jalal Arabloo

Antonio Arauz

Olatunde Aremu

Filippo Ariani

Bahroom Armoon

Johan Ärnlöv

Amit Arora

Al Artaman

Krishna K Aryal

Hamid Asayesh

Rana Jawad Asghar

Zerihun Ataro

Sachin R Atre

Marcel Ausloos

Leticia Avila-Burgos

Euripide F G A Avokpaho

Ashish Awasthi

Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla

Rakesh Ayer

Peter S Azzopardi

Arefeh Babazadeh

Hamid Badali

Alaa Badawi

Ayele Geleto Bali

Katherine E Ballesteros

Shoshana H Ballew

Maciej Banach

Joseph Adel Mattar Banoub

Amrit Banstola

Aleksandra Barac

Miguel A Barboza

Suzanne Lyn Barker-Collo

Till Winfried Bärnighausen

Lope H Barrero

Bernhard T Baune

Shahrzad Bazargan-Hejazi

Neeraj Bedi

Ettore Beghi

Masoud Behzadifar

Meysam Behzadifar

Yannick Béjot

Abate Bekele Belachew

Yihalem Abebe Belay

Michelle L Bell

Aminu K Bello

Isabela M Bensenor

Eduardo Bernabe

Robert S Bernstein

Mircea Beuran

Tina Beyranvand

Neeraj Bhala

Suraj Bhattarai

Soumyadeep Bhaumik

Zulfiqar A Bhutta

Belete Biadgo

Ali Bijani

Boris Bikbov

Ver Bilano

Nigus Bililign

Muhammad Shahdaat Bin Sayeed

Donal Bisanzio

Brigette F Blacker

Fiona M Blyth

Ibrahim R Bou-Orm

Soufiane Boufous

Rupert Bourne

Oliver J Brady

Michael Brainin

Luisa C Brant

Alexandra Brazinova

Nicholas J K Breitborde

Hermann Brenner

Paul Svitil Briant

Andrew M Briggs

Andrey Nikolaevich Briko

Gabrielle Britton

Traolach Brugha

Rachelle Buchbinder

Reinhard Busse

Zahid A Butt

Lucero Cahuana-Hurtado

Jorge Cano

Rosario Cárdenas

Juan J Carrero

Austin Carter

Félix Carvalho

Carlos A Castañeda-Orjuela

Jacqueline Castillo Rivas

Franz Castro

Ferrán Catalá-López

Kelly M Cercy

Ester Cerin

Yazan Chaiah

Alex R Chang

Hsing-Yi Chang

Jung-Chen Chang

Fiona J Charlson

Aparajita Chattopadhyay

Vijay Kumar Chattu

Pankaj Chaturvedi

Peggy Pei-Chia Chiang

Ken Lee Chin

Abdulaal Chitheer

Jee-Young J Choi

Rajiv Chowdhury

Hanne Christensen

Devasahayam J Christopher

Flavia M Cicuttini

Liliana G Ciobanu

Massimo Cirillo

Rafael M Claro

Daniel Collado-Mateo

Cyrus Cooper

Josef Coresh

Paolo Angelo Cortesi

Monica Cortinovis

Megan Costa

Ewerton Cousin

Michael H Criqui

Elizabeth A Cromwell

Marita Cross

John A Crump

Abel Fekadu Dadi

Lalit Dandona

Rakhi Dandona

Paul I Dargan

Ahmad Daryani

Rajat Das Gupta

José Das Neves

Tamirat Tesfaye Dasa

Gail Davey

Adrian C Davis

Dragos Virgil Davitoiu

Barbora De Courten

Fernando Pio De La Hoz

Diego De Leo

Jan-Walter De Neve

Meaza Girma Degefa

Louisa Degenhardt

Selina Deiparine

Robert P Dellavalle

Gebre Teklemariam Demoz

Kebede Deribe

Nikolaos Dervenis

Don C Des Jarlais

Getenet Ayalew Dessie

Subhojit Dey

Samath Dhamminda Dharmaratne

Mesfin Tadese Dinberu

M Ashworth Dirac

Shirin Djalalinia

Linh Doan

Klara Dokova

David Teye Doku

E Ray Dorsey

Kerrie E Doyle

Tim Robert Driscoll

Manisha Dubey

Eleonora Dubljanin

Eyasu Ejeta Duken

Bruce B Duncan

Andre R Duraes

Hedyeh Ebrahimi

Soheil Ebrahimpour

Michelle Marie Echko

David Edvardsson

Andem Effiong

Joshua R Ehrlich

Charbel El Bcheraoui

Maysaa El Sayed Zaki

Ziad El-Khatib

Hajer Elkout

Iqbal R F Elyazar

Ahmadali Enayati

Aman Yesuf Endries

Benjamin Er

Holly E Erskine

Babak Eshrati

Sharareh Eskandarieh

Alireza Esteghamati

Sadaf Esteghamati

Hamed Fakhim

Vahid Fallah Omrani

Mahbobeh Faramarzi

Mohammad Fareed

Farzaneh Farhadi

Talha A Farid

Carla Sofia E sá Farinha

Andrea Farioli

Andre Faro

Maryam S Farvid

Farshad Farzadfar

Valery L Feigin

Netsanet Fentahun

Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad

Eduarda Fernandes

Joao C Fernandes

Alize J Ferrari

Garumma Tolu Feyissa

Irina Filip

Florian Fischer

Christina Fitzmaurice

Nataliya A Foigt

Kyle J Foreman

Jack Fox

Tahvi D Frank

Takeshi Fukumoto

Nancy Fullman

Thomas Fürst

João M Furtado

Neal D Futran

Seana Gall

Morsaleh Ganji

Fortune Gbetoho Gankpe

Alberto L Garcia-Basteiro

William M Gardner

Abadi Kahsu Gebre

Amanuel Tesfay Gebremedhin

Teklu Gebrehiwo Gebremichael

Tilayie Feto Gelano

Johanna M Geleijnse

Ricard Genova-Maleras

Yilma Chisha Dea Geramo

Peter W Gething

Kebede Embaye Gezae

Keyghobad Ghadiri

Khalil Ghasemi Falavarjani

Maryam Ghasemi-Kasman

Mamata Ghimire

Rakesh Ghosh

Aloke Gopal Ghoshal

Simona Giampaoli

Paramjit Singh Gill

Tiffany K Gill

Ibrahim Abdelmageed Ginawi

Giorgia Giussani

Elena V Gnedovskaya

Ellen M Goldberg

Srinivas Goli

Hector Gómez-Dantés

Philimon N Gona

Sameer Vali Gopalani

Taren M Gorman

Alessandra C Goulart

Bárbara Niegia Garcia Goulart

Ayman Grada

Morgan E Grams

Giuseppe Grosso

Harish Chander Gugnani

Yuming Guo

Prakash C Gupta

Rahul Gupta

Rajeev Gupta

Tanush Gupta

Bishal Gyawali

Juanita A Haagsma

Vladimir Hachinski

Nima Hafezi-Nejad

Hassan Haghparast Bidgoli

Tekleberhan B Hagos

Gessessew Bugssa Hailu

Arvin Haj-Mirzaian

Arya Haj-Mirzaian

Randah R Hamadeh

Samer Hamidi

Alexis J Handal

Graeme J Hankey

Yuantao Hao

Hilda L Harb

Sivadasanpillai Harikrishnan

Josep Maria Haro

Mehedi Hasan

Hadi Hassankhani

Hamid Yimam Hassen

Rasmus Havmoeller

Caitlin N Hawley

Roderick J Hay

Simon I Hay

Akbar Hedayatizadeh-Omran

Behzad Heibati

Delia Hendrie

Andualem Henok

Claudiu Herteliu

Sousan Heydarpour

Desalegn Tsegaw Hibstu

Huong Thanh Hoang

Hans W Hoek

Howard J Hoffman

Michael K Hole

Enayatollah Homaie Rad

Praveen Hoogar

H Dean Hosgood

Seyed Mostafa Hosseini

Mehdi Hosseinzadeh

Mihaela Hostiuc

Sorin Hostiuc

Peter J Hotez

Damian G Hoy

Mohamed Hsairi

Aung Soe Htet

Guoqing Hu

John J Huang

Chantal K Huynh

Kim Moesgaard Iburg

Chad Thomas Ikeda

Bogdan Ileanu

Olayinka Stephen Ilesanmi

Usman Iqbal

Seyed Sina Naghibi Irvani

Caleb Mackay Salpeter Irvine

Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam

Farhad Islami

Kathryn H Jacobsen

Leila Jahangiry

Nader Jahanmehr

Sudhir Kumar Jain

Mihajlo Jakovljevic

Mehdi Javanbakht

Achala Upendra Jayatilleke

Panniyammakal Jeemon

Ravi Prakash Jha

Vivekanand Jha

John S Ji

Catherine O Johnson

Jost B Jonas

Jacek Jerzy Jozwiak

Suresh Banayya Jungari

Mikk Jürisson

Zubair Kabir

Rajendra Kadel

Amaha Kahsay

Rizwan Kalani

Tanuj Kanchan

Manoochehr Karami

Behzad Karami Matin

André Karch

Corine Karema

Narges Karimi

Seyed M Karimi

Amir Kasaeian

Dessalegn H Kassa

Getachew Mullu Kassa

Tesfaye Dessale Kassa

Nicholas J Kassebaum

Srinivasa Vittal Katikireddi

Norito Kawakami

Ali Kazemi Karyani

Masoud Masoud Keighobadi

Peter Njenga Keiyoro

Laura Kemmer

Grant Rodgers Kemp

Andre Pascal Kengne

Andre Keren

Yousef Saleh Khader

Behzad Khafaei

Morteza Abdullatif Khafaie

Alireza Khajavi

Ibrahim A Khalil

Ejaz Ahmad Khan

Muhammad Shahzeb Khan

Muhammad Ali Khan

Young-Ho Khang

Mohammad Khazaei

Abdullah T Khoja

Ardeshir Khosravi

Mohammad Hossein Khosravi

Aliasghar A Kiadaliri

Daniel N Kiirithio

Cho-Il Kim

Daniel Kim

Pauline Kim

Young-Eun Kim

Yun Jin Kim

Ruth W Kimokoti

Yohannes Kinfu

Adnan Kisa

Katarzyna Kissimova-Skarbek

Mika Kivimäki

Ann Kristin Skrindo Knudsen

Jonathan M Kocarnik

Sonali Kochhar

Yoshihiro Kokubo

Tufa Kolola

Jacek A Kopec

Soewarta Kosen

Georgios A Kotsakis

Parvaiz A Koul

Ai Koyanagi

Michael A Kravchenko

Kewal Krishan

Kristopher J Krohn

Barthelemy Kuate Defo

Burcu Kucuk Bicer

G Anil Kumar

Manasi Kumar

Hmwe Hmwe Kyu

Deepesh P Lad

Sheetal D Lad

Alessandra Lafranconi

Ratilal Lalloo

Tea Lallukka

Faris Hasan Lami

Van C Lansingh

Arman Latifi

Kathryn Mei-Ming Lau

Jeffrey V Lazarus

Janet L Leasher

Jorge R Ledesma

Paul H Lee

James Leigh

Janni Leung

Miriam Levi

Sonia Lewycka

Shanshan Li

Yichong Li

Yu Liao

Misgan Legesse Liben

Lee-Ling Lim

Stephen S Lim

Shiwei Liu

Rakesh Lodha

Katharine J Looker

Alan D Lopez

Stefan Lorkowski

Paulo A Lotufo

Nicola Low

Rafael Lozano

Tim C D Lucas

Lydia R Lucchesi

Raimundas Lunevicius

Ronan A Lyons

Stefan Ma

Erlyn Rachelle King Macarayan

Mark T Mackay

Fabiana Madotto

Hassan Magdy Abd El Razek

Muhammed Magdy Abd El Razek

Dhaval P Maghavani

Narayan Bahadur Mahotra

Hue Thi Mai

Marek Majdan

Reza Majdzadeh

Azeem Majeed

Reza Malekzadeh

Deborah Carvalho Malta

Abdullah A Mamun

Ana-Laura Manda

Helena Manguerra

Treh Manhertz

Mohammad Ali Mansournia

Lorenzo Giovanni Mantovani

Chabila Christopher Mapoma

Joemer C Maravilla

Wagner Marcenes

Ashley Marks

Francisco Rogerlândio Martins-Melo

Ira Martopullo

Winfried März

Melvin B Marzan

Tivani Phosa Mashamba-Thompson

Benjamin Ballard Massenburg

Manu Raj Mathur

Kunihiro Matsushita

Pallab K Maulik

Mohsen Mazidi

Colm McAlinden

John J McGrath

Martin McKee

Man Mohan Mehndiratta

Ravi Mehrotra

Kala M Mehta

Varshil Mehta

Fabiola Mejia-Rodriguez

Tesfa Mekonen

Addisu Melese

Mulugeta Melku

Michele Meltzer

Peter T N Memiah

Ziad A Memish

Walter Mendoza

Desalegn Tadese Mengistu

Getnet Mengistu

George A Mensah

Seid Tiku Mereta

Atte Meretoja

Tuomo J Meretoja

Tomislav Mestrovic

Naser Mohammad Gholi Mezerji

Bartosz Miazgowski

Tomasz Miazgowski

Anoushka I Millear

Ted R Miller

Benjamin Miltz

G K Mini

Mojde Mirarefin

Erkin M Mirrakhimov

Awoke Temesgen Misganaw

Philip B Mitchell

Habtamu Mitiku

Babak Moazen

Bahram Mohajer

Karzan Abdulmuhsin Mohammad

Noushin Mohammadifard

Mousa Mohammadnia-Afrouzi

Mohammed A Mohammed

Shafiu Mohammed

Farnam Mohebi

Modhurima Moitra

Ali H Mokdad

Mariam Molokhia

Lorenzo Monasta

Yoshan Moodley

Mahmood Moosazadeh

Ghobad Moradi

Maziar Moradi-Lakeh

Mehdi Moradinazar

Paula Moraga

Lidia Morawska

Ilais Moreno Velásquez

Joana Morgado-Da-Costa

Shane Douglas Morrison

Marilita M Moschos

Seyyed Meysam Mousavi

Kalayu Brhane Mruts

Achenef Asmamaw Muche

Kindie Fentahun Muchie

Ulrich Otto Mueller

Oumer Sada Muhammed

Satinath Mukhopadhyay

Kate Muller

John Everett Mumford

Manoj Murhekar

Jonah Musa

Kamarul Imran Musa

Ghulam Mustafa

Ashraf F Nabhan

Chie Nagata

Mohsen Naghavi

Aliya Naheed

Azin Nahvijou

Nitish Naik

Farid Najafi

Luigi Naldi

Hae Sung Nam

Vinay Nangia

Jobert Richie Nansseu

Bruno Ramos Nascimento

Gopalakrishnan Natarajan

Nahid Neamati

Ionut Negoi

Ruxandra Irina Negoi

Subas Neupane

Charles Richard James Newton

Josephine W Ngunjiri

Anh Quynh Nguyen

Ha Thu Nguyen

Huong Lan Thi Nguyen

Huong Thanh Nguyen

Long Hoang Nguyen

Minh Nguyen

Nam Ba Nguyen

Son Hoang Nguyen

Emma Nichols

Dina Nur Anggraini Ningrum

Molly R Nixon

Nomonde Nolutshungu

Shuhei Nomura

Ole F Norheim

Mehdi Noroozi

Bo Norrving

Jean Jacques Noubiap

Hamid Reza Nouri

Malihe Nourollahpour Shiadeh

Mohammad Reza Nowroozi

Elaine O Nsoesie

Peter S Nyasulu

Christopher M Odell

Richard Ofori-Asenso

Felix Akpojene Ogbo

In-Hwan Oh

Olanrewaju Oladimeji

Andrew T Olagunju

Tinuke O Olagunju

Pedro R Olivares

Helen Elizabeth Olsen

Bolajoko Olubukunola Olusanya

Kanyin L Ong

Sok King Ong

Eyal Oren

Alberto Ortiz

Erika Ota

Stanislav S Otstavnov

Simon Øverland

Mayowa Ojo Owolabi

Mahesh P A

Rosana Pacella

Amir H Pakpour

Adrian Pana

Songhomitra Panda-Jonas

Andrea Parisi

Eun-Kee Park

Charles D H Parry

Shanti Patel

Sanghamitra Pati

Snehal T Patil

Ajay Patle

George C Patton

Vishnupriya Rao Paturi

Katherine R Paulson

Neil Pearce

David M Pereira

Norberto Perico

Konrad Pesudovs

Hai Quang Pham

Michael R Phillips

David M Pigott

Julian David Pillay

Michael A Piradov

Meghdad Pirsaheb

Farhad Pishgar

Oleguer Plana-Ripoll

Dietrich Plass

Suzanne Polinder

Svetlana Popova

Maarten J Postma

Akram Pourshams

Hossein Poustchi

Dorairaj Prabhakaran

Swayam Prakash

V Prakash

Caroline A Purcell

Manorama B Purwar

Mostafa Qorbani

D Alex Quistberg

Amir Radfar

Anwar Rafay

Alireza Rafiei

Fakher Rahim

Kazem Rahimi

Afarin Rahimi-Movaghar

Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar

Mahfuzar Rahman

Mohammad Hifz ur Rahman

Muhammad Aziz Rahman

Sajjad Ur Rahman

Rajesh Kumar Rai

Fatemeh Rajati

Usha Ram

Prabhat Ranjan

Anna Ranta

Puja C Rao

David Laith Rawaf

Salman Rawaf

K Srinath Reddy

Robert C Reiner

Nickolas Reinig

Marissa Bettay Reitsma

Giuseppe Remuzzi

Andre M N Renzaho

Serge Resnikoff

Satar Rezaei

Mohammad Sadegh Rezai

Antonio Luiz P Ribeiro

Stephen R Robinson

Leonardo Roever

Luca Ronfani

Gholamreza Roshandel

Ali Rostami

Gregory A Roth

Ambuj Roy

Enrico Rubagotti

Perminder S Sachdev

Nafis Sadat

Basema Saddik

Ehsan Sadeghi

Sahar Saeedi Moghaddam

Hosein Safari

Yahya Safari

Roya Safari-Faramani

Mahdi Safdarian

Sare Safi

Saeid Safiri

Rajesh Sagar

Amirhossein Sahebkar

Mohammad Ali Sahraian

Haniye Sadat Sajadi

Nasir Salam

Joseph S Salama

Payman Salamati

Komal Saleem

Zikria Saleem

Yahya Salimi

Joshua A Salomon

Sundeep Santosh Salvi

Inbal Salz

Abdallah M Samy

Juan Sanabria

Yingying Sang

Damian Francesco Santomauro

Itamar S Santos

João Vasco Santos

Milena M Santric Milicevic

Bruno Piassi Sao Jose

Mayank Sardana

Abdur Razzaque Sarker

Nizal Sarrafzadegan

Benn Sartorius

Shahabeddin Sarvi

Brijesh Sathian

Maheswar Satpathy

Arundhati R Sawant

Monika Sawhney

Sonia Saxena

Mete Saylan

Elke Schaeffner

Maria Inês Schmidt

Ione J C Schneider

Ben Schöttker

David C Schwebel

Falk Schwendicke

James G Scott

Mario Sekerija

Sadaf G Sepanlou

Edson Serván-Mori

Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi

Hosein Shabaninejad

Azadeh Shafieesabet

Mehdi Shahbazi

Amira A Shaheen

Masood Ali Shaikh

Mehran Shams-Beyranvand

Mohammadbagher Shamsi

Morteza Shamsizadeh

Heidar Sharafi

Kiomars Sharafi

Mehdi Sharif

Mahdi Sharif-Alhoseini

Meenakshi Sharma

Rajesh Sharma

Jun She

Aziz Sheikh

Peilin Shi

Kenji Shibuya

Mika Shigematsu

Rahman Shiri

Reza Shirkoohi

Kawkab Shishani

Ivy Shiue

Farhad Shokraneh

Haitham Shoman

Mark G Shrime

Si Si

Soraya Siabani

Tariq J Siddiqi

Inga Dora Sigfusdottir

Rannveig Sigurvinsdottir

João Pedro Silva

Dayane Gabriele Alves Silveira

Narayana Sarma Venkata Singam

Jasvinder A Singh

Narinder Pal Singh

Virendra Singh

Dhirendra Narain Sinha

Eirini Skiadaresi

Erica Leigh N Slepak

Karen Sliwa

David L Smith

Mari Smith

Adauto Martins Soares Filho

Badr Hasan Sobaih

Soheila Sobhani

Eugène Sobngwi

Samir S Soneji

Moslem Soofi

Masoud Soosaraei

Reed J D Sorensen

Joan B Soriano

Luciano A Sposato

Chandrashekhar T Sreeramareddy

Vinay Srinivasan

Jeffrey D Stanaway

Dan J Stein

Caitlyn Steiner

Timothy J Steiner

Mark A Stokes

Lars Jacob Stovner

Michelle L Subart

Agus Sudaryanto

Mu'awiyyah Babale Sufiyan

Bruno F Sunguya

Patrick John Sur

Ipsita Sutradhar

Bryan L Sykes

Dillon O Sylte

Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos

Santosh Kumar Tadakamadla

Birkneh Tilahun Tadesse

Nikhil Tandon

Segen Gebremeskel Tassew

Mohammad Tavakkoli

Nuno Taveira

Hugh R Taylor

Arash Tehrani-Banihashemi

Tigist Gashaw Tekalign

Shishay Wahdey Tekelemedhin

Merhawi Gebremedhin Tekle

Habtamu Temesgen

Mohamad-Hani Temsah

Omar Temsah

Abdullah Sulieman Terkawi

Mebrahtu Teweldemedhin

Kavumpurathu Raman Thankappan

Nihal Thomas

Binyam Tilahun

Quyen G To

Marcello Tonelli

Roman Topor-Madry

Fotis Topouzis

Anna E Torre

Miguel Tortajada-Girbés

Mathilde Touvier

Marcos Roberto Tovani-Palone

Jeffrey A Towbin

Bach Xuan Tran

Khanh Bao Tran

Christopher E Troeger

Thomas Clement Truelsen

Miltiadis K Tsilimbaris

Derrick Tsoi

Lorainne Tudor Car

E Murat Tuzcu

Kingsley N Ukwaja

Irfan Ullah

Eduardo A Undurraga

Jurgen Unutzer

Rachel L Updike

Muhammad Shariq Usman

Olalekan A Uthman

Muthiah Vaduganathan

Afsane Vaezi

Pascual R Valdez

Santosh Varughese

Tommi Juhani Vasankari

Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian

Santos Villafaina

Francesco S Violante

Sergey Konstantinovitch Vladimirov

Vasily Vlassov

Stein Emil Vollset

Kia Vosoughi

Isidora S Vujcic

Fasil Shiferaw Wagnew

Yasir Waheed

Stephen G Waller

Yafeng Wang

Yuan-Pang Wang

Elisabete Weiderpass

Robert G Weintraub

Daniel J Weiss

Fitsum Weldegebreal

Kidu Gidey Weldegwergs

Andrea Werdecker

T Eoin West

Harvey A Whiteford

Justyna Widecka

Tissa Wijeratne

Lauren B Wilner

Shadrach Wilson

Andrea Sylvia Winkler

Alison B Wiyeh

Charles Shey Wiysonge

Charles D A Wolfe

Anthony D Woolf

Shouling Wu

Yun-Chun Wu

Grant M A Wyper

Denis Xavier

Gelin Xu

Simon Yadgir

Ali Yadollahpour

Seyed Hossein Yahyazadeh Jabbari

Tomohide Yamada

Lijing L Yan

Yuichiro Yano

Mehdi Yaseri

Yasin Jemal Yasin

Alex Yeshaneh

Ebrahim M Yimer

Paul Yip

Engida Yisma

Naohiro Yonemoto

Seok-Jun Yoon

Marcel Yotebieng

Mustafa Z Younis

Mahmoud Yousefifard

Chuanhua Yu

Vesna Zadnik

Zoubida Zaidi

Sojib Bin Zaman

Mohammad Zamani

Zohreh Zare

Ayalew Jejaw Zeleke

Zerihun Menlkalew Zenebe

Kai Zhang

Zheng Zhao

Maigeng Zhou

Sanjay Zodpey

Inbar Zucker

Theo Vos

Christopher J L Murray



Contributors

Abstract

Background
The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2017 (GBD 2017) includes a comprehensive assessment of incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) for 354 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2017. Previous GBD studies have shown how the decline of mortality rates from 1990 to 2016 has led to an increase in life expectancy, an ageing global population, and an expansion of the non-fatal burden of disease and injury. These studies have also shown how a substantial portion of the world's population experiences non-fatal health loss with considerable heterogeneity among different causes, locations, ages, and sexes. Ongoing objectives of the GBD study include increasing the level of estimation detail, improving analytical strategies, and increasing the amount of high-quality data.

Methods
We estimated incidence and prevalence for 354 diseases and injuries and 3484 sequelae. We used an updated and extensive body of literature studies, survey data, surveillance data, inpatient admission records, outpatient visit records, and health insurance claims, and additionally used results from cause of death models to inform estimates using a total of 68 781 data sources. Newly available clinical data from India, Iran, Japan, Jordan, Nepal, China, Brazil, Norway, and Italy were incorporated, as well as updated claims data from the USA and new claims data from Taiwan (province of China) and Singapore. We used DisMod-MR 2.1, a Bayesian meta-regression tool, as the main method of estimation, ensuring consistency between rates of incidence, prevalence, remission, and cause of death for each condition. YLDs were estimated as the product of a prevalence estimate and a disability weight for health states of each mutually exclusive sequela, adjusted for comorbidity. We updated the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a summary development indicator of income per capita, years of schooling, and total fertility rate. Additionally, we calculated differences between male and female YLDs to identify divergent trends across sexes. GBD 2017 complies with the Guidelines for Accurate and Transparent Health Estimates Reporting.

Findings
Globally, for females, the causes with the greatest age-standardised prevalence were oral disorders, headache disorders, and haemoglobinopathies and haemolytic anaemias in both 1990 and 2017. For males, the causes with the greatest age-standardised prevalence were oral disorders, headache disorders, and tuberculosis including latent tuberculosis infection in both 1990 and 2017. In terms of YLDs, low back pain, headache disorders, and dietary iron deficiency were the leading Level 3 causes of YLD counts in 1990, whereas low back pain, headache disorders, and depressive disorders were the leading causes in 2017 for both sexes combined. All-cause age-standardised YLD rates decreased by 3·9% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 3·1–4·6) from 1990 to 2017; however, the all-age YLD rate increased by 7·2% (6·0–8·4) while the total sum of global YLDs increased from 562 million (421–723) to 853 million (642–1100). The increases for males and females were similar, with increases in all-age YLD rates of 7·9% (6·6–9·2) for males and 6·5% (5·4–7·7) for females. We found significant differences between males and females in terms of age-standardised prevalence estimates for multiple causes. The causes with the greatest relative differences between sexes in 2017 included substance use disorders (3018 cases [95% UI 2782–3252] per 100 000 in males vs s1400 [1279–1524] per 100 000 in females), transport injuries (3322 [3082–3583] vs 2336 [2154–2535]), and self-harm and interpersonal violence (3265 [2943–3630] vs 5643 [5057–6302]).

Interpretation
Global all-cause age-standardised YLD rates have improved only slightly over a period spanning nearly three decades. However, the magnitude of the non-fatal disease burden has expanded globally, with increasing numbers of people who have a wide spectrum of conditions. A subset of conditions has remained globally pervasive since 1990, whereas other conditions have displayed more dynamic trends, with different ages, sexes, and geographies across the globe experiencing varying burdens and trends of health loss. This study emphasises how global improvements in premature mortality for select conditions have led to older populations with complex and potentially expensive diseases, yet also highlights global achievements in certain domains of disease and injury.

Journal Article Type Article
Publication Date Nov 10, 2018
Journal The Lancet
Print ISSN 0140-6736
Electronic ISSN 1474-547X
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 392
Issue 10159
Pages 1789-1858
Institution Citation Naik, G., James, S. L., Abate, D., Abate, K. H., Abay, S. M., Abbafati, C., …Murray, C. J. L. (2018). Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 354 Diseases and Injuries for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2017: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Lancet, 392(10159), 1789-1858. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736%2818%2932279-7
DOI https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736%2818%2932279-7
Keywords General Medicine
Publisher URL https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140673618322797?via%3Dihub
Additional Information This article is maintained by: Elsevier; Article Title: Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 354 diseases and injuries for 195 countries and territories, 1990–2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017; Journal Title: The Lancet; CrossRef DOI link to publisher maintained version: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(18)32279-7; Content Type: article; Copyright: © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.

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