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“Hard to reach, but not out of reach”: Barriers and facilitators to recruiting Black African and Black Caribbean men with prostate cancer and their partners into qualitative research

Bamidele, Olufikayo O.; E. McGarvey, Helen; Lagan, Briege M.; Chinegwundoh, Frank; Ali, Nasreen; McCaughan, Eilis

Authors

Helen E. McGarvey

Briege M. Lagan

Frank Chinegwundoh

Nasreen Ali

Eilis McCaughan



Abstract

Access and recruitment barriers may have contributed to the underrepresentation of Black African/Caribbean men and their partners in current psychosocial research related to prostate cancer survivors. Whilst some studies have explored recruitment barriers and facilitators from participants’ perspectives, little is known from researchers’ point of view. This paper aimed to address this gap in the literature. Recruitment strategies included the following: cancer support groups, researchers’ networks, media advertisement, religious organisations, National Health Service hospitals and
snowball sampling. Thirty‐six eligible participants (men = 25, partners = 11) were recruited into the study. Recruitment barriers comprised of gate‐keeping and advertisement issues and the stigma associated with prostate cancer disclosure. Facilitators which aided recruitment included collaborating with National Health Service hospitals,
snowball sampling, flexible data collection, building rapport with participants to gain their trust and researcher’s attributes. Findings highlight that “hard to reach” Black African/Caribbean populations may be more accessible if researchers adopt flexible but strategic and culturally sensitive recruitment approaches. Such approaches
should consider perceptions of stigma associated with prostate cancer within these communities and the influence gatekeepers can have in controlling access to potential participants. Increased engagement with healthcare professionals and gatekeepers could facilitate better access to Black African/Caribbean populations
so that their voices can be heard and their specific needs addressed within the healthcare agenda.

Journal Article Type Article
Journal European Journal of Cancer Care
Print ISSN 0961-5423
Electronic ISSN 1365-2354
Publisher Wiley
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 28
Issue 2
Pages e12977
APA6 Citation Bamidele, O. O., E. McGarvey, H., Lagan, B. M., Chinegwundoh, F., Ali, N., & McCaughan, E. (in press). “Hard to reach, but not out of reach”: Barriers and facilitators to recruiting Black African and Black Caribbean men with prostate cancer and their partners into qualitative research. European Journal of Cancer Care, 28(2), e12977. https://doi.org/10.1111/ecc.12977
DOI https://doi.org/10.1111/ecc.12977
Keywords Prostate cancer, African caribbean, Black African, men, partners, recruitment