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A Scoping Review of Stigma Related to Prostate Cancer in Black Men

Bamidele, Olufikayo; Greenley, Sarah; Ukoha-Kalu, Blessing Onyinye; Titus, Opeyemi Faith; Nanton, Veronica


Blessing Onyinye Ukoha-Kalu

Opeyemi Faith Titus

Veronica Nanton


Background Prostate cancer (CaP) disproportionately affects 1-in-4 Black men and is a stigmatised disease within their communities. Yet, Black men are underrepresented in CaP research concerning stigma, which necessitates a scoping review to map available evidence on this topic to inform future research. Aims To map published literature on stigma related to CaP in Black men to understand their experiences and/or perceptions and identify directions for future research. Methods A scoping review was conducted using the five-step framework by Arksey and O'Malley. Studies published in English addressing stigma related to CaP from the perspectives of Black men and/or their families were included. We searched six databases including Medline, Embase, PsycInfo, CINAHL, Web of Science Core Collection and Google Scholar, from inception to April 2023. Citation searches were also conducted. Two independent reviewers conducted screening and data extraction. Data was synthesised using descriptive content analysis. Results Thirty-four eligible studies conducted in the USA, UK, Trinidad and Tobago, South Africa, Cameroon and Canada from 1995 to 2023 were included. A total of 1867 Black men with/without a CaP diagnosis and 145 adult partners were included. Review findings showed a complex intersection of self-stigma, public stigma and structural stigma impacted Black men's perceptions of their masculinity. While men's experiences/perceptions of stigma varied depending on their illness status, there were commonalities in their masculinity concerns (underpinned by stigma), which influenced their attitude towards digital rectal examination, post-treatment side effects and social interactions on CaP. These have implications for public health messaging on CaP within Black communities, as well as patient-provider interactions with the men. Conclusions This novel review highlights the need to pay attention to how CaP is presented to Black men and their communities using avenues and languages that are culturally acceptable and empower them to negotiate self-stigma, public stigma and structural stigma related to CaP. Directions for further research were also identified.


Bamidele, O., Greenley, S., Ukoha-Kalu, B. O., Titus, O. F., & Nanton, V. (2024). A Scoping Review of Stigma Related to Prostate Cancer in Black Men. Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities,

Journal Article Type Review
Acceptance Date Jun 23, 2024
Online Publication Date Jul 9, 2024
Publication Date 2024
Deposit Date Jul 9, 2024
Publicly Available Date Jul 10, 2024
Journal Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Print ISSN 2197-3792
Publisher Springer
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Keywords Prostate cancer; Stigma; Black men; Scoping review
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© The Author(s) 2024.
Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit

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