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The biomechanical role of the chondrocranium and the material properties of cartilage

Jones, Marc E. H.; Gröning, Flora; Aspden, Richard M; Dutel, Hugo; Sharp, Alana; Moazen, Mehran; Fagan, Michael J; Evans, Susan E


Marc E. H. Jones

Flora Gröning

Richard M Aspden

Hugo Dutel

Alana Sharp

Mehran Moazen

Michael J Fagan

Susan E Evans


Michael Fagan
Project Leader


The chondrocranium is the cartilage component of the vertebrate braincase. Among jawed vertebrates it varies greatly in structure, mineralisation, and in the extent to which it is replaced by bone during development. In mammals, birds, and some bony fish, most of the chondrocranium is replaced by bone whereas in lizards, amphibians, and chondrichthyan fish it may remain a significant part of the braincase complex in adulthood. To what extent this variation relates to differences in skull biomechanics is poorly understood. However, there have been examinations of chondrocranium histology, in vivo strain, and impact on rostrum growth following partial removal of the chondrocranium. These studies have led to suggestions that the chondrocranium may provide structural support or serve to dampen external loads. Advances in computing-power have also facilitated an increase in the number of three-dimensional computer-based models. These models can be analysed (in silico) to test specific biomechanical hypotheses under specified loading conditions. However, representing the material properties of cartilage is still problematic because these properties differ according to the speed and direction of loading. The relationship between stress and strain is also non-linear. Nevertheless, analyses to date suggest that the chondrocranium does not provide a vertical support in lizards but it may serve to absorb some loads in humans. We anticipate that future models will include ever more detailed representations of the loading, anatomy, and material properties, in tandem with rigorous forms of model validation. However, comparison among a wider range of vertebrate subjects should also be pursued, in particular larvae, juveniles, and very small adult animals.


Jones, M. E. H., Gröning, F., Aspden, R. M., Dutel, H., Sharp, A., Moazen, M., …Evans, S. E. (2020). The biomechanical role of the chondrocranium and the material properties of cartilage. Vertebrate Zoology, 70(4), 699-715.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Oct 28, 2020
Online Publication Date Nov 24, 2020
Publication Date 2020
Deposit Date Apr 1, 2022
Publicly Available Date Oct 27, 2022
Journal Vertebrate Zoology
Print ISSN 1864-5755
Publisher Pensoft Publishers
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 70
Issue 4
Pages 699-715
Keywords Biomechanics; cartilage; chondrocranium; finite element analysis; Salvator meriannae; skull
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Copyright Statement
© Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung, 2020.
The article and published supplementary material are distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0)

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