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Translation and Validation of the Birth Satisfaction Scale-Revised in Urdu for Use in Pakistan

Zafar, Shamsa; Tayyab, Fareeha; Liaqat, Asma; Sikander, Siham; Hollins Martin, Caroline J.; Martin, Colin R.


Shamsa Zafar

Fareeha Tayyab

Asma Liaqat

Siham Sikander

Caroline J. Hollins Martin

Colin R. Martin


BACKGROUND: Satisfaction with the birth experience is increasingly recognized as critical to the well-being of mother and baby and thus accurate assessment of this key dimension is essential. The Birth Satisfaction Scale-Revised (BSS-R) has been shown to be a robust, valid, and reliable measure of birth experience. The current study sought to develop an Urdu version of the measure to be used in Pakistan. METHODS: Following translation, a cross-sectional design was used to examine the measurement properties of the Pakistan (Urdu)-BSS-R (P-BSS-R). Participants were a purposive sample of Pakistani postnatal women (n = 200). Key psychometric properties were examined using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), internal consistency evaluation, and known-groups discriminant validity testing. RESULTS: The majority of measurement parameters for clinical application of the P-BSS-R were found to be acceptable with good known-groups discriminant validity and data fit to the tri-dimensional theoretical model of the BSS-R observed. However, some idiosyncratic observations were highlighted, including unexpected low internal consistency. CONCLUSIONS: The P-BSS-R was found to be a generally valid and reliable measure of the experience, a caveat being low internal consistency warranting further investigation.


Zafar, S., Tayyab, F., Liaqat, A., Sikander, S., Hollins Martin, C. J., & Martin, C. R. (in press). Translation and Validation of the Birth Satisfaction Scale-Revised in Urdu for Use in Pakistan. International journal of childbirth, 11(2), 72-83.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Mar 5, 2021
Online Publication Date Apr 16, 2021
Deposit Date Apr 30, 2021
Publicly Available Date Apr 17, 2022
Journal International Journal of Childbirth
Print ISSN 2156-5295
Electronic ISSN 2156-5295
Publisher Springer Publishing Company
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 11
Issue 2
Pages 72-83
Keywords Birth satisfaction; Birth experience; Scales; Psychometrics; Replicability
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