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Current understanding of nonsurgical interventions for refractory differentiated thyroid cancer: a systematic review

Jones, Heidi; Green, Victoria; England, James; Greenman, John


Heidi Jones

James England


Thyroid cancer incidence and related mortality is increasing year-on-year, and although treatment for early disease with surgery and radioiodine results in a 98% 5-year survival rate, recurrence and treatment refractory disease is evident in an unacceptable number of patients. Alternative treatment regimens have therefore been sought in the form of tyrosine kinase inhibitors, immunotherapy, vaccines, chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy and oncolytic viruses. The current review aims to consolidate knowledge and highlight the latest clinical trials using secondary therapies in thyroid cancer treatment, focusing on both in vitro and in vivo studies, which have investigated therapies other than radioiodine. Lay abstract The rates of thyroid cancer and related deaths are increasing. Differentiated thyroid cancer is the most common type of thyroid cancer. Early disease can be treated with surgery and radioactive iodine with very good outcomes. However, this therapy does not work for a small number of patients making it important to find different (secondary) treatment options. This review summarizes the results of published research about secondary treatment options for differentiated thyroid cancer. Ongoing research including laboratory-based and clinical trials are also highlighted.


Jones, H., Green, V., England, J., & Greenman, J. (2021). Current understanding of nonsurgical interventions for refractory differentiated thyroid cancer: a systematic review. Future Science OA, 7(7),

Journal Article Type Review
Acceptance Date May 27, 2021
Online Publication Date Jun 15, 2021
Publication Date 2021-08
Deposit Date Jan 5, 2022
Publicly Available Date Jan 5, 2022
Journal Future Science OA
Print ISSN 2056-5623
Electronic ISSN 2056-5623
Publisher Future Science
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 7
Issue 7
Keywords Chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy; Immunotherapy; Oncolytic viruses; Secondary therapy; Thyroid cancer; Tyrosine kinase inhibitors
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