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PCG signals for biometric authentication systems: An in-depth review

El-Dahshan, El Sayed A.; Bassiouni, Mahmoud M.; Sharvia, Septavera; Salem, Abdel Badeeh M.


El Sayed A. El-Dahshan

Mahmoud M. Bassiouni

Abdel Badeeh M. Salem


This review aims to present a survey of the technologies and methodologies used in the phonocardiogram (PCG) biometric systems. The phases used in the PCG which are explored in this paper include data acquisition, de-noising, extracting PCG peaks, feature extraction, feature reduction, classification, and evaluation. As part of this study, we performed a systematic review that summarizes the well-known approaches used in PCG since its inception to the current status. Out of 157 manuscripts available in the academic databases from 2006 until 2020, 35 primary studies focused on ”heart sounds” like a biometric and this is related to the objective of this research. Out of those studies, 11 matched the inclusion criteria. The estimation performance of these systems is close to an acceptable level in the consideration of PCG as a biometric. The use of PCG signals is a promising field. Finally, the limitations and some future works are discussed.


El-Dahshan, E. S. A., Bassiouni, M. M., Sharvia, S., & Salem, A. B. M. (2021). PCG signals for biometric authentication systems: An in-depth review. Computer Science Review, 41, Article 100420.

Journal Article Type Review
Acceptance Date Jul 29, 2021
Online Publication Date Aug 18, 2021
Publication Date 2021-08
Deposit Date Sep 9, 2021
Publicly Available Date Oct 27, 2022
Journal Computer Science Review
Print ISSN 1574-0137
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 41
Article Number 100420
Keywords Cardiac sound signals; Biometrics; Authentication; Machine learning
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