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Effect of Temperature and Acoustic Pressure During Ultrasound Liquid-Phase Processing of Graphite in Water

Morton, Justin A.; Eskin, Dmitry G.; Grobert, Nicole; Mi, Jiawei; Porfyrakis, Kyriakos; Prentice, Paul; Tzanakis, Iakovos


Justin A. Morton

Dmitry G. Eskin

Nicole Grobert

Kyriakos Porfyrakis

Paul Prentice

Iakovos Tzanakis


Ultrasound-assisted liquid-phase exfoliation is a promising method for manufacturing two-dimensional materials. Understanding the effect of ultrasonication parameters such as the temperature and input power on the developed pressure field is pivotal for optimization of the process. Limited research has been carried out to determine the optimal temperature for exfoliation, with some data generating disputed results. Simply maximizing the sonication power does not necessarily produce a higher yield because of shielding. In this study, a high-temperature calibrated cavitometer was used to measure the acoustic pressure generated in different graphite solutions in deionized water at various temperatures (from 10°C to 70°C) and input power conditions (from 20% to 100%). In addition, high-speed optical imaging provided insight on the shock wave generation from transient bubble collapses under different sonication conditions. The optimal sono-exfoliation parameters were determined to be 20% input power at 10°C for graphite flake solution, and 100% input power at 40°C to 50°C for graphite powder solution.


Morton, J. A., Eskin, D. G., Grobert, N., Mi, J., Porfyrakis, K., Prentice, P., & Tzanakis, I. (2021). Effect of Temperature and Acoustic Pressure During Ultrasound Liquid-Phase Processing of Graphite in Water. JOM Journal of the Minerals, Metals and Materials Society,

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Sep 13, 2021
Online Publication Date Oct 26, 2021
Publication Date 2021-12
Deposit Date Apr 11, 2022
Publicly Available Date Apr 11, 2022
Journal JOM
Print ISSN 1047-4838
Electronic ISSN 1543-1851
Publisher Springer
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
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© 2021 The Author(s).<br /> OPEN ACCESS This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit h ttp://

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