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Evolutionary origin and phylogeography of the diploid obligate parthenogen Artemia parthenogenetica (Branchiopoda: Anostraca)

Muñoz, Joaquín; Gomez, Africa; Green, Andy J.; Figuerola, Jordi; Amat, Francisco; Rico, Ciro; Munoz, Joaquin

Authors

Joaquín Muñoz

Andy J. Green

Jordi Figuerola

Francisco Amat

Ciro Rico

Joaquin Munoz



Contributors

Corrie S. Moreau
Editor

Abstract

Background: Understanding the evolutionary origin and the phylogeographic patterns of asexual taxa can shed light on the origin and maintenance of sexual reproduction. We assessed the geographic origin, genetic diversity, and phylogeographic history of obligate parthenogen diploid Artemia parthenogenetica populations, a widespread halophilic crustacean. Methodology/Principal Findings: We analysed a partial sequence of the Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit I mitochondrial gene from an extensive set of localities (including Eurasia, Africa, and Australia), and examined their phylogeographic patterns and the phylogenetic relationships of diploid A. parthenogenetica and its closest sexual relatives. Populations displayed an extremely low level of mitochondrial genetic diversity, with one widespread haplotype shared by over 79% of individuals analysed. Phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses indicated a multiple and recent evolutionary origin of diploid A. parthenogenetica, and strongly suggested that the geographic origin of parthenogenesis in Artemia was in Central Asia. Our results indicate that the maternal sexual ancestors of diploid A. parthenogenetica were an undescribed species from Kazakhstan and A. urmiana. Conclusions/Significance: We found evidence for multiple origin of parthenogenesis in Central Asia. Our results indicated that, shortly after its origin, diploid A. parthenogenetica populations underwent a rapid range expansion from Central Asia towards the Mediterranean region, and probably to the rest of its current geographic distribution. This contrasts with the restricted geographic distribution, strong genetic structure, and regional endemism of sexual Artemia lineages and other passively dispersed sexual continental aquatic invertebrates. We hypothesize that diploid parthenogens might have reached their current distribution in historical times, with a range expansion possibly facilitated by an increased availability of suitable habitat provided by anthropogenic activities, such as the spread of solar saltworks, aided by their natural dispersal vectors (i.e., waterbirds).

Journal Article Type Article
Publication Date Oct 15, 2010
Journal PLOS ONE
Print ISSN 1932-6203
Electronic ISSN 1932-6203
Publisher Public Library of Science
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 5
Issue 8
Article Number ARTN e11932
Pages e11932
APA6 Citation Muñoz, J., Gomez, A., Green, A. J., Figuerola, J., Amat, F., & Rico, C. (2010). Evolutionary origin and phylogeography of the diploid obligate parthenogen Artemia parthenogenetica (Branchiopoda: Anostraca). PloS one, 5(8), e11932. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011932
DOI https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011932
Keywords General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology; General Agricultural and Biological Sciences; General Medicine
Publisher URL http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0011932

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Copyright Statement
© 2010 Muñoz et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.



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