Skip to main content

Research Repository

Advanced Search

The transformation of the small master economy in the boot and shoe industry 1887-1914 : with special reference to Northampton

Brooker, Keith Barry


Keith Barry Brooker


Keith Nield

Geoffrey Crossick


The footwear industry is one of the important examples of late industrial transformation in nineteenth century  Britain. The aim here is to investigate shoe manufacturers' reactions to this period of structural and  organisational change. The thesis is in three parts:(I) Chapters One-Three explore the character and scope of industrialisation in the industry. The literature on  British entrepreneurship, evaluates the shifts in attitude and strategy of dominant groups within each industry;  much less attention has been given to the often wide divergence of experience within business communities as a whole. In small master-dominated industries, like shoemaking, there existed a range of business experience  - both business success and failure - which has not been the subject of close empirical study. Here, the  assumption of an orderly, progressive concentration of capital is challenged. The small shoe masters' role  during industrialisation was more complex than the literature allows. Secondly, the chronology and  determinants of change are reappraised. And, finally, the size, character and structure of the Northampton footwear business community is studied.(II) Chapters Four-Six take up this theme of business failure. Little previous systematic, empirical investigation  of patterns of failure has been carried out by historians. Thus, initially, general issues of methodology and theory are broached. The data presented, not only allows failure trends to be analysed, but is also used to explore  small masters' attitudes and reactions to change. Three facets of failure were isolated. Failure linked to  business cycle effects (Chapter Four). The high endemic levels of failure linked to normal trading pressures  with reference particularly to infant firms. Here questions of credit provision, failure causation and small master  motivation are examined (Chapter Five), in addition to normal and hiatus failures amongst mature firms (Chapter Six). Lastly, failures linked to industrialisation are investigated (Chapter Six). There are two features:  the contraction of the small master base and the failure of old established firms.(III) As a counterpoint to Section II, Chapters Seven and Eight study those firms that survive to 1914. These  included a small, dominant elite group of established firms, whose industrial policies, family business  organisation and striving for social acceptance are examined.


Brooker, K. B. (1986). The transformation of the small master economy in the boot and shoe industry 1887-1914 : with special reference to Northampton. (Thesis). University of Hull. Retrieved from

Thesis Type Thesis
Deposit Date Jan 5, 2012
Publicly Available Date Feb 22, 2023
Keywords Economics; Management
Public URL
Additional Information Department of Economic and Social History, The University of Hull
Award Date Jun 1, 1986


Thesis (48.1 Mb)

Copyright Statement
© 1986 Brooker, Keith Barry. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced without the written permission of the copyright holder.

Downloadable Citations