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Stakeholders’ views of Key areas for Citizenship Education in Libya post-Gaddafi

Faitur, Gamela F.I.


Gamela F.I. Faitur


Mike Bottery

Nigel Wright


This thesis investigates the views of stakeholders on citizenship education in Libya post- Gaddafi. It is the first study on this topic in the Libyan context.
Under Gaddafi, citizenship education was substituted with what was variously called El- Waei El-Seiasy or El-Mogtema Al-Jamaheiry and El-Faker Al-Jamaheiry, consisting of Gaddafi's thoughts. Such education aimed to reinforce tribalism across the country by strengthening the social and political role of regional tribal leaders, creating citizens who served, maintained, and bolstered Gaddafi's regime. This enhanced tribal belonging and loyalty among young people, rather than belonging and loyalty to their homeland.
This study examines, in free Libya, the selected stakeholder perceptions of citizenship education; specifically the domination of tribalism in society, the lack of national values among individuals, women’s rights and their stereotyped role in society, and the cultural and linguistic rights of the Amazigh minority.
A mixed methods methodology was used. Firstly, a quantitative survey was employed collecting data from headteachers and deputies of basic and secondary schools in two cities, Derna and El-Qubba (n=420). Qualitative interviews were then conducted with the national Minister of Libyan Education and the two officials of the Department of Educational Affairs in the two cities, Derna and El-Qubba.
The findings revealed that citizenship is a polysemous concept. Tribalism exists in Libyan society post-Gaddafi, with positive responses toward belonging and loyalty to a tribe and region. Citizenship education should reflect a nested conception fostering a greater emphasis towards a national dimension. Findings indicate women’s continuing marginalization, and discrimination against the linguistic and cultural rights of the Amazigh minority. The findings showed that citizenship education in Libya post- Gaddafi is influenced by social, political, religious and tribal issues. Issues needing more consideration from the new Libyan government and recommendations for further research are indicated.


Faitur, G. F. (2014). Stakeholders’ views of Key areas for Citizenship Education in Libya post-Gaddafi. (Thesis). University of Hull. Retrieved from

Thesis Type Thesis
Deposit Date Jan 12, 2022
Publicly Available Date Feb 24, 2023
Keywords Education
Public URL
Additional Information Centre of Education Studies, The University of Hull
Award Date Aug 1, 2014


Thesis (5.2 Mb)

Copyright Statement
© 2014 Faitur, Gamela F.I. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced without the written permission of the copyright holder.

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