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The influence of mental toughness on responses to feedback in snooker: A real-time examination

Dewhurst, Stephen A.; Welsh, James; Perry, John L.


James Welsh

John L. Perry


Two experiments investigated whether mental toughness (MT) is associated with the ability to respond to and/or overcome unwanted information during real-time sport performance. Participants were male snooker players ranging from club to professional level, and MT was measured using the MTQ48 (Clough et al., 2002). In experiment 1, players performed five break-off shots and received deceptive feedback (either positive or negative) from the researcher about their performance relative to other players. Then they performed another five break-offs. Results showed a significant decline in performance following feedback, but no interaction with the nature of feedback or MT variables. In experiment 2, feedback was delivered by a coach and yielded a significant effect on performance. Specifically, negative feedback improved performance while positive feedback impaired performance. The Life Control subscale of the MTQ48 was a significant covariate. The results suggest that negative feedback, delivered constructively by a respected figure, may act as a catalyst for performance enhancement in snooker and that this is moderated by MT.


Dewhurst, S. A., Welsh, J., & Perry, J. L. (2023). The influence of mental toughness on responses to feedback in snooker: A real-time examination. Psychology of sport and exercise, 68, Article 102466.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date May 14, 2023
Online Publication Date May 16, 2023
Publication Date Sep 1, 2023
Deposit Date May 15, 2023
Publicly Available Date Jun 2, 2023
Journal Psychology of Sport and Exercise
Print ISSN 1469-0292
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 68
Article Number 102466
Keywords Closed-skill sport; Negative feedback; Coaching; Mental toughness
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